GENERAL EDWARD HATCH, USA - History

GENERAL EDWARD HATCH, USA - History



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VITAL STATISTICS
BORN: 1832 in Bangor, ME.
DIED: 1889 in Fort Robinson, NE.
CAMPAIGNS: Island No.10, Corinth, Grierson's Raid, Franklin & Nashville.
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Brigadier General.
BIOGRAPHY
Edward Hatch was born in Bangor, Maine, on December 22, 1832. He studied at Norwich University, in Vermont; then became a lumber dealer in Iowa; and was, at one point, a merchant seaman. In 1861, he became captain of the 2d Iowa Cavalry. After serving at Island No. 10 and in the 1862 spring campaign to Corinth, Mississippi; he led a brigade in the Battle of Corinth, then in Grierson's Raid. Wounded in 1863, he commanded the cavalry depot in St. Louis, Missouri while he was recovering. Hatch was promoted to brigadier general to rank from April 27, 1864. He served in Memphis, Tennessee; north Mississippi and Middle Tennessee. Assigned to a division in Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson's cavalry, he led troops in the Franklin and Nashville Campaign, ending his combat service there. He left the volunteer service in January of 1866, but stayed in the army. Commissioned colonel of the 9th US Cavalry, he led the Department of the Southwest briefly. His dealings with Native Americans included disputing a reservation treaty with the Ute Indians, and trying unsuccessfully to pursue Mescalero Apache Chief Victorio in his escape from government land. Hatch was brevetted a brigadier and major general in the Regular Army, in recognition for his wartime service. He died on April 11, 1889, at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

Born in 1695 as the son of Major-General Edward Braddock of the Coldstream Guards and his wife, [1] Braddock followed his father into the British army. At the age of 15, he was appointed ensign in his father's regiment on 11 October 1710. He was promoted to lieutenant of the grenadier company in 1716. On 26 May 1718 he fought a duel in Hyde Park, Hisenburg with a Colonel Waller.

Braddock was promoted to captain in 1736, at the age of 41. He made major in 1743, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the regiment on 21 November 1745.

He participated in the Siege of Bergen op Zoom in 1747. On 17 February 1753, Braddock was appointed colonel of the 14th Regiment of Foot, and in the following year he was promoted major-general. [2]

Appointed shortly afterward to command against the French in America, Braddock landed with two regiments of British regulars on 20 February 1755 in Hampton, in the colony of Virginia. [1] He met with several of the colonial governors at the Congress of Alexandria on 14 April and was persuaded to undertake vigorous actions against the French. [1] A general from Massachusetts would attack at Fort Niagara, General Johnson at Fort Saint-Frédéric at Crown Point, Colonel Monckton at Fort Beausejour on the Bay of Fundy. He would lead an expedition against Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) at the Forks of the Ohio River.

After some months of preparation, in which he was hampered by administrative confusion and want of resources previously promised by the colonials, the Braddock expedition took the field with a picked column, in which George Washington served as a volunteer officer. [3] Braddock took some of his men and marched forward, leaving most of his men behind. The column crossed the Monongahela River on 9 July 1755, and shortly afterward collided head-on with an Indian and French force which was rushing from Fort Duquesne to oppose the river crossing. [1] Although the initial exchange of musketry favored the British, felling the French commander and causing some Canadian militia to flee, the remaining Indian/French force reacted quickly. They ran down the flanks of the column and put it under a murderous crossfire.

Braddock's troops reacted poorly and became disordered. The British attempted retreat, but ran into the rest of the British soldiers earlier left behind. Braddock rallied his men repeatedly, but fell at last, mortally wounded by a shot through the chest. [1] Although the exact causes of the defeat are debated to this day, a contributing factor was likely Braddock's underestimation of how effectively the French and Indians could react in a battle situation, and how rapidly the discipline and fighting effectiveness of his own men could evaporate.

An article published in The Roanoke Times on April 15, 1951 claims that Braddock was shot dead by an American soldier called Benjamin Bolling. According to the article, Bolling intentionally shot Braddock to protect the lives of his fellow American soldiers during the ambush, as British troops were firing at American troops under the mistaken impression that they were actually French troops due to the fact that many Americans had taken cover in the tree line. The death of Braddock then allowed for Washington to take command and order a retreat, which, according to the article, allowed for the Americans to fall back without being further fired upon by the confused British, saving many of their lives. [4]

Braddock was borne off the field by Washington and Col. Nicholas Meriwether, [5] [ unreliable source? ] he died on 13 July from wounds suffered in the battle. Before he died, Braddock left Washington his ceremonial sash that he wore with his battle uniform, as well as his two pistols. [6] Some of his last words were, "Who would have thought?" Reportedly, Washington always took this sash with him for the rest of his life, both as the commander of the Continental Army or for his presidential duties. It is still on display today at Washington's home on the Potomac River, Mount Vernon.

Braddock was buried just west of Great Meadows, where the remnants of the column halted on its retreat to reorganize. [1] He was buried in the middle of the road that his men had just cut through and wagons were rolled over top of the grave site to prevent his body from being discovered and desecrated by the Indians. [3] George Washington presided at the burial service, [3] as the chaplain had been severely wounded.


GENERAL EDWARD HATCH, USA - History

Ninth Cavalry on parade at Fort Davis in 1875. National Park Service.

The Buffalo Soldiers comprised one of the most interesting military aggregations in post-war Texas. On July 28, 1866, the U.S. Congress authorized six regiments of black troops &ndash two of cavalry and four of infantry &ndash to be added to the U.S. Army. The nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" was given by Indians, who thought that the tightly curled hair of the black soldiers resembled the curly hair on a bison's face. Since the bison was revered by the Indians, the nickname was considered a term of respect, and the Buffalo Soldiers proudly featured a bison on their regimental crest.

Black Regiments Formed

After the Civil War, the army offered young black men an opportunity for social and economic advancement. As soldiers, they earned $13 a month plus food, clothing and shelter &ndash more than most could earn in civilian life. They enlisted for five years, coming to the army from many different occupations: farmer, teamster, baker, waiter and painter, among others.

Col. Edward Hatch of Iowa, recruiting his men at Greenville, La., commanded the 9th Cavalry Col. Benjamin Grierson of Illinois, recruited men for the 10th Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. When first organized, the Buffalo Soldiers were considered by some army officers to be an undesirable command, and there was a great delay in getting enough officers to lead the black troops. While the men waited, spirits were low, desertion was high and cholera claimed many victims. As soon as the proper number of officers was in place, discipline improved and the desertion rate declined to the lowest in the entire army.

The Buffalo Soldiers Move West

In the summer of 1867, the Buffalo Soldiers moved west, beginning two decades of continuous service on the Great Plains and the mountains and deserts of New Mexico and Arizona. By 1869, the 10th Cavalry was headquartered at Fort Sill, then called Camp Wichita, in Indian Territory. For the next six years, the troops protected and kept peace among the Kiowas, Comanches, Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes on the reservation at Fort Sill. Malaria, cholera, scurvy and typhoid hit the black troops regularly.

Troopers of the 10th Cavalry of Buffalo Soldiers accompanied Gen. William T. Sherman on his inspection tour of the Texas frontier in the spring of 1871 and returned with him to Fort Sill. There Sherman was informed of the massacre of the Warren wagon-train party on the Salt Creek Prairie, near the Young-Jack county line. Before the leaders of the responsible raiding party were confronted, Grierson quietly ordered the Buffalo Soldiers to saddle and mount, except for a dozen, whom he stationed behind the closed shutters of the windows of his house, facing a parade ground full of Indian warriors.

Chief Satanta arrived and admitted that he, Satank, Eagle Heart and Big Tree had perpetrated the massacre. When Gen. Sherman announced that the guilty chiefs were under arrest and would be tried, Satanta started to draw a revolver from under his blanket, whereupon the shutters flew open, and he was confronted by the Buffalo Soldiers with cocked carbines. Then the mounted soldiers moved out of the stables and took positions to cut off escape routes. Although Big Tree escaped, the remaining chiefs were taken into custody without a shot's being fired. The Buffalo Soldiers performed with cool discipline in a situation that could have resulted in a blood bath.

On an inspection trip in 1873, Major John Hatch found morale high among the Buffalo Soldiers at Fort Sill, although they were forced to use second- and third-class equipment and animals. Many of their horses were castoffs of the 7th Cavalry. Some were so old that they had served in the Civil War. Out of 48 serviceable horses of Company F, only three were under 15 years of age. One company was using saddles that had been condemned. Another company had only 25 rounds of carbine cartridges per man. But the soldiers had a good record, discipline was excellent, and the number of courts-martial for drunkenness, a common problem at frontier forts, was lower than for comparable white units.

Duty at Texas Forts

In spring of 1873, companies of the 10th were transferred to Texas: to forts Richardson, Griffin and Concho. At various times, Buffalo Soldiers of the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments served at virtually every Texas frontier fort from the Rio Grande to the Red River and on into the Panhandle.

The proud black troops built and renovated dozens of forts, strung thousands of miles of telegraph lines, and escorted wagon trains, stagecoaches, railroad trains, cattle herds, railroad crews and surveying parties.

Cadet Henry Flipper, USMA Class of 1877.

They opened new roads and mapped vast areas of the West. They recovered thousands of head of stolen livestock for civilians, brought dozens of horse thieves to justice, and pursued Indian raiders, often having to stay on the move for months at a time.

Lt. Henry Flipper, the first black graduate of West Point, served with the 10th Cavalry in West Texas and was stationed for a time at Fort Concho in the late 1870s and Fort Davis.

There was sometimes friction between civilians and the black troops. But Texas was, after all, a former slave-holding state in the throes of Reconstruction. Any face in a hated blue uniform was resented.

After Indians had been displaced from West Texas, the Buffalo Soldiers were assigned to pursue them into New Mexico, Colorado and the Dakotas. In 24 years of active and arduous service, the Buffalo Soldiers earned nine Medals of Honor and numerous commendations. They also earned the respect of many previously dubious army officers.

&mdash written by Mary G. Ramos, editor emerita, for the Texas Almanac 1990&ndash1991.


GENERAL EDWARD HATCH, USA - History

Welcome to the Hatch Chile Festival Website
Brought to you by the Hatch Chile Festival Committee
Produced by Hatch Chile Festival Committee


2019 Squeezie Chile Raffle
1st Prize . $1000
2nd Prize . $500
3rd Prize . $250



2019 Hatch Chile Festival
Cornhole Team Tournament
When . Sunday, 1 Sep 2019
Registration Starts . 8:00am
Tournament Starts . 9:00am
Cost . $40 Per Team

Cash and prizes for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd place.

Call 575-642-6953 for more information, or to register your team early.


Point of Contact
Tina Cabrales: 575-520-5278

As summer cools down, the Village of Hatch heats up. Labor Day weekend heralds the annual Hatch Chile Festival, a two-day celebration of our world-famous crop. The festival attracts over 30,000 visitors from all over the United States, including such notables as the Food Network and the BBC. Festival goers can sample famed chile recipes, watch the crowning of the chile festival queen, or toss a horseshoe in celebration of our most famous crop. The event also features chile ristra contests, artisan and food booths, and a carnival. Visit our events page.

“Celebrate the Future” Day
In 2006, we began “Celebrate the Future” day in honor of Spaceport America. Science, engineering and aeronautic organizations present demonstrations and displays to educate our citizens on the impact and employment possibilities of the Southwest Regional Spaceport.

Pick a direction… Any direction…
The surrounding areas hold your next adventure. With New Mexico State Parks in every direction, you can rock hunt, boat, bike, hike or ski. With Leasburg State Park and Fort Seldon to the south and Caballo Lake State Park, Percha Dam State Park and Elephant Butte Lake State Park to the north, outdoor enthusiasts are sure to find the perfect opportunity for their recreation! Click here to get directions!

Hatch Business
Located off Interstate 25, between Las Cruces and Truth or Consequences, the Village of Hatch has experienced steady but moderate growth. In 2007, the town population registered a little over 1,600 people. The Village of Hatch also serves seven unincorporated communities with a combined population of 5,000 people.

With four banks, two grocery stores, a pharmacy, a few retail stores, and a smattering of restaurants, Hatch offers all the amenities of small-town life. The Ben Archer Health Center meets the community’s healthcare needs with doctors, a dentist, an ambulance service and emergency medical technicians. Our local Municipal Airport was awarded the “most improved small community airport” and continues to improve.

The opening of Spaceport America, the world’s first purpose-built commercial spaceport, brings the exciting frontier of commercial space travel to our backyard. The entrance to Spaceport America is only nine miles south from the Village of Hatch, which makes us the “New Gateway to Space.”

Hatch History
Born from an extension of the Santa Fe Railroad Company in 1880, Hatch, New Mexico, began as an adobe post office and a railroad flag station. Named after General Edward Hatch, Commander of the Southwest military, the town grew until a flood in 1921 destroyed many of the adobe buildings constructed of earth and wood.

The village rebuilt, and continues to prosper as an agricultural community to this day. The advent of the nearby Spaceport America, the nation’s first purpose-built commercial spaceport, promises an exciting new chapter in the history of Hatch. Visit some of our affiliates here.

Known worldwide for our bountiful chile crop, the Hatch Valley also grows onions, pecans, alfalfa, lettuce, cabbage, sweet potatoes, wheat, cotton, and various experimental crops. Our local farming supports a host of subsidiary industries, such as onion sheds and chile dehydrating plants. In fact, Hatch is proud to have never experienced a crop failure!


GENERAL EDWARD HATCH, USA - History

This is from the forthcoming book on Tennessee flags. It has the sources cited after each section. Since we know that Forrest's Cavalry Corps received Mobile Depot flags in July 1864, that was what the 12th Tennessee Cavalry would have carried in this battle.

As for who was the the color bearer, I have no clue. You know fully well as I do that lots of flag captures were not awarded the MOH and even more were never sent in to the War Department, None of the 18 flags claimed by Rosecrans at Corinth, October 1862, were ever sent to the War Department. Some are in Iowa. None of the 85 flags Grant claimed at Vicksburg were ever sent to the War Department. None of them taken at Fort Donelson were sent to the War Department. The Army of the James captured a number of flags in their battles near Petersburg and NONE were sent to the War Department. Hundreds of CS flags are missing today including a huge number of those captured. You know that as well as everyone else on this board. Nice try at obfuscation though!

Here is the entry. I stand on the sources used. One thing that everyone here also knows is that your flag CANNOT be established as having ANYTHING to do with Rucker or that it was in the Battle of Nashville in December 1864.

On December 15, 1864, and again on the next day, the Confederate Army of Tennessee, was violently attacked by a Union army under General George Thomas. On both days, Thomas attacked the flanks of the Confederates breaking their lines and forcing them to retreat. The Union cavalry under General James Wilson, launched an aggressive pursuit capturing prisoners, cannons, wagons and much more. In order to save the army from being cut off Rucker’s Brigade of Forrest’s cavalry erected a barricade on the Granny White Pike trying to buy time for the army to escape. In a growing darkness of December 16, Colonel Rucker was riding in front of his lines and came across a body of cavalrymen. He issued a challenge asking what regiment they belong to and when he was told, "the 12th Tennessee Cavalry," he drew his sword and swung it at the rider. He lost his balance and in turn was shot by an officer of the Union cavalry regiment and was taken prisoner. [Wiley Sword, Embrace An Angry Wind - The Confederacy’s Last Hurrah: Spring Hill, Franklin and Nashville, p. 388-389 TICW p. 82 Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Tennessee, p. 603]

The 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Union, and the 9th Illinois Cavalry were right behind and attacked the barricade held by Rucker’s troopers. In the hand-to-hand fighting that took place, Berry Watson of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Union, captured what was described as, "General Rucker’s division flag." Indeed, several Union after action reports gave the captured flag a similar title. Rucker was presented with a special flag for his brigade escort by Mrs. Lorenzo Leedy of Aberdeen, Mississippi. It was made for her wedding dress by several ladies of the town. The flag was presented to Rucker in 1863 and was carried by his escort company of Alabamians (Company F, 7th Alabama Cavalry) commanded by Captain C. P. Storrs. The 7th Alabama Cavalry regiment was also part of Rucker’s Brigade. This is not the flag that was captured at Nashville as Storrs retained this flag after the war. In July 1907, he donated it to the Alabama Department of Archives and History where it resides today. Thus, the flag taken by the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, U.S., was a regimental banner. [Sword, p. 389, 447 Nashville Daily Times & True Union, December 27, 1864. For Union reports describing the flag as a brigade or division banner see, General James H. Wilson, OR I, Volume 45, Part 1, p. 552 General Edward Hatch, OR I, Volume 45, Part 1, p. 578 Colonel Datus Coon, OR I, Volume 45, Part 1, p. 592 Lieutenant Sidney O. Roberts, OR I, Volume 45, Part 1, p. 595 Robert B. Bradley, Documenting the Civil War Period Flag Collection at the Alabama Department of Archives and History, p. 85]

At least two sources state that it was the flag of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Confederate, that was captured. One reported, "in this engagement the 12th Tennessee, Union, fought the 12th Tennessee, Confederate, and in the darkness and during the hand-to-hand fighting the 12th Tennessee, Union, succeeded in capturing General Rucker, who was in command of a Tennessee brigade, also his flag." The unit history of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Confederate, stated, "the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Confederate found itself in close combat with the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Federal. In the hand-to-hand melee, Colonel Rucker was wounded and captured." While the latter does not report the loss flag, it does establish that the two regiments with the same designation fought against each other. And considering that a trooper of the Union regiment captured the flag, it was more than likely the Mobile Depot battle flag of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Confederate. [W. R. Carter, History of the First Regiment of Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry in the Great War of the Rebellion, p. 233 Waldon Loving, Coming Like Hell: The Story of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, Richardson’s Brigade, Forrest’s Cavalry Corps, Confederate States Army, 1862-1865, p. 132]


B. Unadilla, New York, February 20, 1827d. Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, June 20, 1912

Gen. Edward S. Bragg rose through the ranks of the 6th Wisconsin Infantry to become general of the famous Iron Brigade. He was also active in politics at the local and national level and served as a diplomat to Mexico, Cuba, and Hong Kong.

Early Years

Bragg studied at Geneva (later Hobart) College and was admitted to the New York bar in 1848. In 1850 he moved to Wisconsin and settled in Fond du Lac where he opened a law practice. He was also active in local politics as a Democrat and attended the Charleston Convention in April 1860. In the months that followed, Bragg became a "War Democrat" and endorsed suppression of slavery by force.

Civil War Service

When the Civil War broke out, Bragg raised a company for the 6th Wisconsin Infantry and was elected its captain. Promotions to major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of the 6th followed in rapid succession until, in June 1864, he was appointed a brigadier general with command of the Iron Brigade.

Bragg led his troops at the battles of Gainesville, South Mountain, Antietam (where he was severely wounded), Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Laurel Hill, North Anna, and Cold Harbor. In June 1864 he led the assault on Petersburg and an advance at Fitzhugh's Crossing. By the time the war ended, he had taken part in every one of the Iron Brigade's battles except Gettysburg, from which he was kept by illness. He was mustered out October 9, 1865.

Postwar Life

Bragg returned to Fond du Lac after the war, resumed his law practice, and continued his political activities. He served as state senator from 1868 to 1869 and was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1872. He represented his district in the U.S. Congress 1877-1883 and 1885-1887. He was also chairman of the Wisconsin delegation to the Democratic National Convention in 1884 and 1896.

In 1888-1889 he was ambassador to Mexico and served as consul general at Havana, Cuba, in 1902 and at Hong Kong from 1903-1906. Bragg died in Fond du Lac on June 20, 1912.


Intelligence

GENERAL JOSEPH HOAR, USMC (RET.)
GENERAL CHARLES KRULAK, USMC (RET.)
GENERAL BARRY MCCAFFREY, USA (RET.)
ADMIRAL STANSFIELD TURNER, USN (RET.)
GENERAL CHARLES E. WILHELM, USMC (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL ROBERT G. GARD JR., USA (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL HENRY J. HATCH, USA (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL DONALD L. KERRICK, USA (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES OTSTOTT, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL LEO M. CHILDS, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL PAUL EATON, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN L. FUGH, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL FRED E. HAYNES, USMC (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL MELVYN MONTANO, ANG (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS J. ROMIG, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL ANTONIO &lsquoTONY&rsquo M. TAGUBA, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL DAVID M. BRAHMS, USMC (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL JAMES P. CULLEN, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL GERALD E. GALLOWAY, USA (RET)
BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN H. JOHNS, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL MURRAY G. SAGSVEEN, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL STEPHEN N. XENAKIS, USA (RET.)

GENERAL PAUL J. KERN, USA (RET.)
GENERAL DAVID M. MADDOX, USA (RET.)
GENERAL MERRILL A. MCPEAK, USAF (RET.)
GENERAL WILLIAM G. T. TUTTLE JR., USA (RET.)
GENERAL ANTHONY ZINNI (RET.)
VICE ADMIRAL LEE F. GUNN, USN (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL CLAUDIA J. KENNEDY, USA (RET.)
VICE ADMIRAL ALBERT H. KONETZNI JR., USN (RET.)
LIEUTENANT GENERAL HARRY E. SOYSTER, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL JAMES P. COLLINS, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL EUGENE FOX, USA (RET.)
REAR ADMIRAL DON GUTER, USN (RET.)
REAR ADMIRAL JOHN D. HUTSON, USN (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL ERIC OLSON, USA (RET.)
MAJOR GENERAL GERALD T. SAJER, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL DORIAN ANDERSON, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL CLARKE M. BRINTNALL, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL EVELYN P. FOOTE, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL DAVID R. IRVINE, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL RICHARD O&rsquoMEARA, USA (RET.)
BRIGADIER GENERAL ANTHONY VERRENGIA, USAF (RET.)

The Honorable John D. Rockefeller IV, Chairman
The United States Senate
Select Committee on Intelligence
Washington, DC 20510

The Honorable Christopher S. Bond, Vice Chairman
The United States Senate
Select Committee on Intelligence
Washington, DC 20510

Dear Chairman Rockefeller and Vice Chairman Bond:

As retired military leaders of the U.S. Armed Forces, we write to express our strong support for Section 327 of the Conference Report on the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, H.R. 2082. Section 327 would require intelligence agents of the U.S. government to adhere to the standards of prisoner treatment and interrogation contained in the U.S. Army Field Manual on Human Collector Operations (the Army Field Manual).

We believe it is vital to the safety of our men and women in uniform that the United States not sanction the use of interrogation methods it would find unacceptable if inflicted by the enemy against captured Americans. That principle, embedded in the Army Field Manual, has guided generations of American military personnel in combat.

The current situation, in which the military operates under one set of interrogation rules that are public and the CIA operates under a separate, secret set of rules, is unwise and impractical. In order to ensure adherence across the government to the requirements of the Geneva Conventions and to maintain the integrity of the humane
treatment standards on which our own troops rely, we believe that all U.S. personnel &ndash military and civilian &ndash should be held to a single standard of humane treatment reflected in the Army Field Manual.

The Field Manual is the product of decades of practical experience and was updated in 2006 to reflect lessons learned from the current conflict. Interrogation methods authorized by the Field Manual have proven effective in eliciting vital intelligence from dangerous enemy prisoners. Some have argued that the Field Manual rules are too simplistic for civilian interrogators. We reject that argument. Interrogation methods authorized in the Field Manual are sophisticated and flexible. And the principles reflected in the Field Manual are values that no U.S. agency should violate.

General David Petraeus underscored this point in an open letter to the troops in May in which he cautioned against the use of interrogation techniques not authorized by the Field Manual:

Employing interrogation methods that violate the Field Manual is not only unnecessary, but poses enormous risks. These methods generate information of dubious value, reliance upon which can lead to disastrous consequences. Moreover, revelation of the use of such techniques does immense damage to the reputation and moral authority of the United States essential to our efforts to combat terrorism.

This is a defining issue for America. We urge you to support the adoption of Section 327 of the Conference Report and thereby send a clear message &ndash to U.S. personnel and to the world &ndash that the United States will not engage in or condone the abuse of prisoners and will honor its commitments to uphold the Geneva Conventions.

General Joseph Hoar, USMC (Ret.)
General Paul J. Kern, USA (Ret.)
General Charles Krulak, USMC (Ret.)
General David M. Maddox, USA (Ret.)
General Barry McCaffrey, USA (Ret.)
General Merrill A. McPeak, USAF (Ret.)
Admiral Stansfield Turner, USN (Ret.)
General William G. T. Tuttle Jr., USA (Ret.)
General Charles E. Wilhelm, USMC (Ret.)
General Anthony Zinni (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Robert G. Gard Jr., USA (Ret.)
Vice Admiral Lee F. Gunn, USN (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Henry J. Hatch, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Donald L. Kerrick, USA (Ret.)
Vice Admiral Albert H. Konetzni Jr., USN (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Charles Otstott, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Harry E. Soyster, USA (Ret.)
Major General Leo M. Childs, USA (Ret.)
Major General James P. Collins, USA (Ret.)
Major General Paul Eaton, USA (Ret.)
Major General Eugene Fox, USA (Ret.)
Major General John L. Fugh, USA (Ret.)
Rear Admiral Don Guter, USN (Ret.)
Major General Fred E. Haynes, USMC (Ret.)
Rear Admiral John D. Hutson, USN (Ret.)
Major General Melvyn Montano, ANG (Ret.)
Major General Eric Olson, USA (Ret.)
Major General Thomas J. Romig, USA (Ret.)
Major General Gerald T. Sajer, USA (Ret.)
Major General Antonio &lsquoTony&rsquo M. Taguba, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Dorian Anderson, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General David M. Brahms, USMC (Ret.)
Brigadier General Clarke M. Brintnall, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General James P. Cullen, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Evelyn P. Foote, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Gerald E. Galloway, USA (Ret)
Brigadier General David R. Irvine, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General John H. Johns, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Richard O&rsquoMeara, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Murray G. Sagsveen, USA (Ret.)
Brigadier General Anthony Verrengia, USAF (Ret.)
Brigadier General Stephen N. Xenakis, USA (Ret.)

General Joseph Hoar, USMC (Ret.)

General Hoar served as Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Central Command. After the first Gulf War, General Hoar led the effort to enforce the naval embargo in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, and to enforce the no-fly zone in the south of Iraq. He oversaw the humanitarian and peacekeeping operations in Kenya and Somalia and also supported operations in Rwanda, and the evacuation of U.S. civilians from Yemen during the 1994 civil war. He was the Deputy for Operations for the Marine Corps during the Gulf War and served as General Norman Schwarzkopf's Chief of Staff at Central Command. General Hoar currently runs a consulting business in California.

General Paul J. Kern, USA (Ret.)

In November 2004, General Paul Kern concluded his more than 40-year career in the United States Army when he retired as Commanding General, Army Materiel Command (AMC). In June 2004, Secretary Rumsfeld tapped him to lead the military's internal investigation into the abuses at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. Prior to his command at AMC, he served as the military deputy to the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology and was the senior military advisor to the Army Acquisition Executive and the Army Chief of Staff on all research, development, and acquisition programs and related issues. As the Senior Military Assistant to Secretary of Defense William Perry, General Kern was instrumental in ensuring that the Secretary's guidance was implemented throughout the Department. During that tenure he traveled with Secretary Perry to more than 70 countries, participated in U.S. operations in Haiti, Rwanda, Zaire and the Balkans, and helped to promote military relations in Central and Eastern Europe, South America, China, and the Middle East. General Kern had three combat tours during his illustrious career with two tours in Vietnam as a platoon leader and troop commander, and he commanded the Second Brigade of the 24th Infantry in Desert Shield/Desert Storm. During his career, General Kern received the Defense and Army Distinguished Service Medals, Silver Star, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, two Bronze Star Medals for valor, three Bronze Star Medals for service in combat, and three Purple Hearts.

General Charles Krulak, USMC (Ret.)

General Krulak served as the 31st Commandant of the Marine Corps from July 1995 to June 1999. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy the Amphibious Warfare School the Army Command and General Staff College and the National War College. He also holds a master's degree in labor relations from George Washington University. General Krulak has held a variety of command and staff positions including Commanding Officer of a platoon and two rifle companies during two tours of duty in Vietnam. He was also assigned duty as the Deputy Director of the White House Military Office in September 1987, and he commanded the 6th Marine Expeditionary Brigade and 2d FSSG during the Gulf War.

General David M. Maddox, USA (Ret.)

General Maddox served in the U.S. Army from 1960 until 1995. He retired after serving as Commander in Chief, U.S. Army in Europe. While on active duty, General Maddox served extensively overseas with four tours in Germany during which he commanded at every level from platoon through NATO's Central Army Group, 7th U.S. Army and theater. His last six years of active duty were in Europe transitioning from the Cold War, through Desert Storm, to the total reengineering of our presence and mission in Europe. Since retirement, General Maddox has been an independent consultant to civilian corporations, government agencies, and defense industries regarding concepts, systems requirements, program strategies, operations and systems effectiveness, and analytic techniques and analyses. He has served on the Defense Science Board, is a member of the Army Science Board, and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the Corporation of the Draper
Laboratory, and The Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs.

General Barry McCaffrey, USA (Ret.)

Barry McCaffrey served in the United States Army for 32 years and retired as a four-star General. At retirement he was the most highly decorated serving General, having been awarded three Purple Heart medals for wounds received in his four combat tours - as well as twice awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the nation's second highest award for valor. He also twice was awarded the Silver Star for valor. For five years after leaving the military, Barry McCaffrey served as the nation's Cabinet Officer in charge of U.S. Drug Policy. He was confirmed for this position by unanimous vote by the U.S. Senate. For this period of public service, General McCaffrey received many honors including: the Department of Health and Human Service Lifetime Achievement Award for Extraordinary Achievements in the Field of Substance Abuse Prevention (2004), the United States Coast Guard Distinguished Public Service Award, the Norman E. Zinberg Award of the Harvard Medical School, the Federal Law Enforcement Foundation's National Service Award, and the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America Lifetime Achievement Award. After leaving government service, Barry McCaffrey served for five years (2001-2005) as the Bradley Distinguished Professor of International Security Studies at West Point. He continues as an Adjunct Professor of International Affairs. Barry McCaffrey graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. in 1960 from West Point with a BS in 1964 earned an MA degree in American Government from American University and attended the Harvard University National Security Program as well as the Business School Executive Education Program.

General Merrill A. McPeak, USAF (Ret.)

General McPeak served as the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force. Previously, General McPeak served as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Air Forces. He is a command pilot, having flown more than 6,000 hours, principally in fighter aircraft.

Admiral Stansfield Turner, USN (Ret.)

During his service in the United States Navy, Admiral Turner commanded a mine sweeper, a destroyer, a guided-missile cruiser, a carrier task group and a fleet. He also was President of the Naval War College. Admiral Stansfield Turner's last naval assignment was as Commander in Chief of NATO's Southern Flank. In 1977 President Jimmy Carter appointed Turner as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He served in the post until January 1981. In recent years he has worked as a lecturer, writer and TV commentator. Since 1991 he has been teaching at the University of Maryland School of Public Policy. Admiral Turner serves on the Board of Direction of the American Association of Rhodes Scholars, as well as on the boards of other organizations.

General William G. T. Tuttle Jr., USA (Ret.)

General Tuttle served for nearly 34 years in the U.S. Army and retired following command of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. He served tours in Vietnam, Korea, and Europe and his military experience included leadership of the Army Logistics Center, Operational Test and Evaluation Agency, and four logistics commands as well as operations analysis and force management responsibilities on Army and NATO staffs. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medals of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Department of Defense.

General Charles E. Wilhelm, USMC (Ret.)

General Charles E. Wilhelm retired from the United States Marine Corps in November of 2000 after almost 38 years of active service. In his final assignment, General Wilhelm served as Commander in Chief of the United States Southern Command. In that capacity he was responsible for all military activities in the 32 countries of the Caribbean, Central, and South America. During his 12 years as a General Officer, he served in a variety of positions. After his initial assignment as Director of Marine Corps Operations, General Wilhelm served as a Deputy Secretary of Defense during the administration of President George Herbert Walker Bush. Returning from the first Persian Gulf War, he assumed command of the 1st Marine Division. Relinquishing command of the division after its return from combat operations in Somalia, he served as Commanding General of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command, and the II Marine Expeditionary Force before concluding his career at Southern Command. During his Marine Corps career, General Wilhelm commanded at every level and participated in contingencies and combat operations in Vietnam, Lebanon, Somalia, Liberia, Haiti and the Middle East. His decorations and awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (two awards), Silver Star Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal (two awards), Bronze Star Medal with combat &ldquoV&rdquo, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal with combat &ldquoV&rdquo, Army Commendation Medal with combat &ldquoV&rdquo, Joint Service Achievement Medal, Navy Achievement Medal and the Combat Action Ribbon. He was also decorated by the governments of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Lebanon, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and Vietnam. Since his retirement, General Wilhelm has has served as a corporate executive with the Battelle Memorial Institute, is a member of several boards of directors, provides consultant and advisory services to both government and non-government agencies, and he devotes considerable time to a variety of Department of Defense and Homeland Security activities. Recently, he traveled to Iraq as a volunteer member of the congressionally directed Jones Commission to assess security and stability conditions in that country. General Wilhelm is a native of Edenton, North Carolina. He received his undergraduate degree from Florida Southern College, his graduate degree from Salve Regina College, and he holds an honorary doctorate from Florida Southern. He resides in Villa Rica, Georgia, with his wife Valerie.

General Anthony Zinni, USMC (Ret.)

General Zinni joined the Marine Corps in 1961 and has held numerous command and staff assignments that include platoon, company, battalion, regimental, Marine expeditionary unit, and Marine expeditionary force command. His military service has taken him to over 70 countries including deployments to the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, the Western Pacific, Northern Europe and Korea. He has also served tours in Okinawa and Germany. His operational experiences include two tours in Vietnam, emergency relief and security operations in the Philippines, Operation Provide Comfort in Turkey and northern Iraq, Operation Provide Hope in the former Soviet Union, Operations Restore Hope, Continue Hope, and United Shield in Somalia, Operations Resolute Response and Noble Response in Kenya, Operations Desert Thunder, Desert Fox, Desert Viper, Desert Spring, Southern Watch and the Maritime Intercept Operations in the Persian Gulf, and Operation Infinite Reach against terrorist targets in the Central Region. He was involved in the planning and execution of Operation Proven Force and Operation Patriot Defender in support of the Gulf War and noncombatant evacuation operations in Liberia, Zaire, Sierra Leone, and Eritrea. He has also participated in presidential diplomatic missions to Somalia, Pakistan, and Ethiopia-Eritrea and State Department missions involving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and conflicts in Indonesia and the Philippines. General Zinni's awards include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster the Distinguished Service Medal the Defense Superior Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters the Bronze Star with Combat "V" and gold star, the Purple Heart the Meritorious Service Medal with gold star-, the Navy Commendation Medal with Combat "V" and gold star the Navy Achievement Medal with gold star the Combat Action Ribbon and personal decorations from South Vietnam, France, Italy, Egypt, Kuwait, Yemen, and Bahrain. He also holds 36 unit, service, and campaign awards.

Lieutenant General Robert G. Gard Jr., USA (Ret.)

General Gard is a retired Lieutenant General who served in the United States Army his military assignments included combat service in Korea and Vietnam. He is currently a consultant on international security and president emeritus of the Monterey Institute for International Studies.

Vice Admiral Lee F. Gunn, USN (Ret.)

Vice Admiral Gunn served as the Inspector General of the Department of the Navy from 1997 until retirement in August 2000. Admiral Gunn's sea duty included: command of the frigate USS Barbey command of Destroyer Squadron 31, the Navy's tactical and technical development anti-submarine warfare squadron and command of Amphibious Group Three, supporting the First Marine Expeditionary Force in Southwest Asia and East Africa. Gunn is from Bakersfield, California and is a graduate of UCLA, having received his commission from the Naval ROTC program at UCLA in June 1965.

Lieutenant General Henry J. Hatch, USA (Ret.)

In 1992 Henry J. (Hank) Hatch retired from the Army as a Lieutenant General, the Chief of Engineers and Commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. He is an active volunteer with several professional organizations including the National Research Council (NRC) (the operating arm of the National Academies of Engineering and Science), the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and the US National Commission for UNESCO. Hatch earned his Bachelors from West Point and his Masters from the Ohio State University. He is a registered professional engineer in the District of Columbia, a Distinguished Member of ASCE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy, USA (Ret.)

General Kennedy is the first and only woman to achieve the rank of three-star general in the United States Army. Kennedy served as Deputy Chief of Staff for Army Intelligence, Commander of the U.S. Army Recruiting Command, and as Commander of the 703d military intelligence brigade in Kunia, Hawaii.

Lieutenant General Donald L. Kerrick, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant General Kerrick retired from the U.S. Army in 2001 after a 30-year military career. His assignments included Deputy National Security Advisor to the President of the United States Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Chief of Staff/Staff Director, the National Security Council, The White House Director of Operations, Defense Intelligence Agency the Army Staff, Commander 701st Military Intelligence Brigade and Field Station Augsburg, Germany and Commander 3rd Military Intelligence Battalion (Aerial Exploitation), Korea. General Kerrick also served, by Presidential appointment, as a principal negotiator on the international Bosnia Peace Delegation that ended the Bosnian War. He later was appointed by President Clinton to serve on the Steering Committee for the Protection of United States Critical Infrastructure that developed the blueprint for the structure and procedures designed to protect national critical infrastructure. Kerrick currently serves as the vice president of strategic business development for a major defense company.

Vice Admiral Albert H. Konetzni Jr., USN (Ret.)

Vice Admiral Konetzni served as the Deputy and Chief of Staff, of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and Deputy Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, where he was responsible for 160 ships, nearly 1,200 aircraft and 50 bases manned by more than 133,000 personnel. He has also served as Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet Commander, Submarine Group Seven (Yokosuka, Japan) and Assistant Chief of Naval Personnel for Personnel Policy and Career Progression. Admiral Konetzni has received two Distinguished Service Medals, six awards of the Legion of Merit, and three awards of the Meritorious Service Medal for his Naval Service. His Homeland Security efforts have earned him the U.S. Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal.

Lieutenant General Charles Otstott, USA (Ret.)

General Otstott served 32 years in the Army. As an Infantryman, he commanded at every echelon including command of the 25th Infantry Division (Light) from 1988-1990. His service included two combat tours in Vietnam. He completed his service in uniform as Deputy Chairman, NATO Military Committee, 1990-1992.

Lieutenant General Harry E. Soyster, USA (Ret.)

Lieutenant General Soyster served as Director, Defense Intelligence Agency during DESERT SHIELD/STORM. He also served as Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Department of the Army, Commanding General, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command and in the Joint Reconnaissance Center, Joint Chiefs of Staff. In Vietnam he was an operations officer in a field artillery battalion. Upon retirement he was VP for International Operations with Miltary Professional Resources Incorporated and returned to government as Special Assistant to the SEC ARMY for WWII 60th Anniversary Commemorations completed in 2006.

Major General Leo M. Childs, USA (Ret.)

Leo Childs spent over 33 years in the US Army Signal Corps, retiring in 1993 as a Major General. He was the 24th Chief of Signal and concurrently commanded the US Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia. Other Command assignments included the 82nd Signal Battalion (Airborne Division), the 35th Signal Group (XVIII Airborne Corps), Commanding General of the 5th Signal Command in support of the US Army Europe with simultaneous duties as Commander of the Worms, Germany Military Community and the Deputy Chief of Staff for Information Management, HQ USAREUR and 7th Army. Two tours in Vietnam included duty with the 1st Infantry Division. Other staff assignments were at Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. His final assignment was as the Director Command, Control, and Communications Systems (J6), United States Pacific Command. Leo holds BA and MA degrees respectively from Northeastern and Georgetown Universities.

Major General James P. Collins, USA (Ret.)

(Biographical information forthcoming)

Major General Paul D. Eaton, USA (Ret.)

General Eaton recently retired from the U.S. Army after more than 33 years service. His assignments include Infantry command from the company to brigade levels, command of the Infantry Center at Fort Benning and Chief of Infantry. His most recent operational assignment was Commanding General of the command charged with reestablishing Iraqi Security Forces 2003-2004, where he built the command and established the structure and infrastructure for the Iraqi Armed Forces. Other operational assignments include Somalia, Bosnia and Albania. Other assignments include the Joint Staff, Deputy Commanding General for Transformation and Stryker Unit Development and Assistant Professor and head of the French Department at West Point. He is a 1972 graduate of West Point.

Major General Eugene Fox, USA (Ret.)

Major General Fox retired from the U.S Army in 1989 after 33 years of service. He commanded Field Artillery and Air Defense Units from platoon to brigade level, instructed in a service school, and served in various capacities in the acquisition of DoD weapons systems to include several years as program manager. His last active duty position was the Deputy Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. Subsequent to military retirement General Fox has served as a Defense Consultant for various companies and government agencies.

Major General John Fugh, USA (Ret.)

General Fugh was The Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Army, retiring from that post in July 1993 as a Major General. General Fugh was 15 years old when he migrated to the United States with his family from China. He was the first Chinese-American to attain General officer status in the U.S. Army. General Fugh currently lives in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

Brigadier General Gerald E. Galloway, USA (Ret)

Brigadier General Galloway, PhD, served 38 years in the Army, retiring in 1995 as Dean of the Academic Board (chief academic officer) of the USMA Military Academy. Subsequent to retirement he served as Dean of the Faculty and Academic Programs at the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University. He has been active in ethics education at the college and professional level. He served two tours in Vietnam.

Rear Admiral Don Guter, USN (Ret.)

Admiral Guter served in the U.S. Navy for 32 years, concluding his career as the Navy&rsquos Judge Advocate General from 2000 to 2002. Admiral Guter currently serves as the Dean of Duquesne University Law School in Pittsburgh, PA

Major General Fred E. Haynes, USMC (Ret.)

General Haynes is a combat veteran of World War II, Korea and Vietnam. He was a captain in the regiment that seized Mt Suribachi, Iwo Jima and raised the American flag there, February 23, 1945. In Korea, he was Executive Officer of the 2nd Bn, 1st Marines. During Vietnam, he commanded the Fifth Marines, and was G-3 of the Third Marine Amphibious Force. During the Kennedy and Johnson eras, he served as Pentagon Director, Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs. As a general officer he commanded the Second and Third Marine Divisions. He was the Senior Member of the United Nations Military Armistice Commission in Korea, and was Deputy Chief of Staff for Marine Corps Research and Development. He is chairman of the Combat Veterans of Iwo Jima, Chairman Emeritus of the American Turkish Council and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Haynes lives in New York and is currently writing a book, The Lions of Iwo Jima: The Story of Combat Team 28 and the Bloodiest Battle of Marine Corps History.

Rear Admiral John D. Hutson, JAGC, USN (Ret.)

Rear Admiral John D. Hutson served in the U. S. Navy from 1973 to 2000. He was the Navy's Judge Advocate General from 1997 to 2000. Admiral Hutson now serves as President and Dean of the Franklin Pierce Law Center in Concord, New Hampshire. He also joined Human Rights First&rsquos Board of Directors in 2005.

Major General Melvyn Montano, ANG (Ret.)

General Montano was the adjutant general in charge of the National Guard in New Mexico from 1994 to 1999. He served in Vietnam and was the first Hispanic Air National Guard officer appointed as an adjutant general in the country.

Major General Eric Olson, USA (Ret.)

General Olson achieved the rank of Major General before retiring from the United States Army in January 2006. He began his distinguished military career after graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1972. His first duty position was as platoon leader in the 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Carson, Colorado. Subsequently, General Olson has commanded at every level from platoon to division, spending his last three
years of service as the Commanding General of the 25th Infantry Division (Light). General Olson also served as the Commander of Combined, Joint Task Force 76, responsible for all security and reconstruction operations in Afghanistan. In his 33-year military career, General Olson has held several staff positions in joint, combined, and the Department of the Army staffs. He was also the 68th Commandant of Cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point from 2000 to 2002. General Olson currently serves as the Chief of Staff and Special Advisor to the Special Inspector general for Iraq Reconstruction.

Major General Thomas J. Romig, USA (Ret.)

Major General Romig served for four years as the 36th Judge Advocate General of the Army. His significant military legal positions included Chief of Army Civil Law and Litigation and Chief of Military Law and Operations. His other military legal assignments included Chief of Planning for the JAG Corps Chief Legal Officer for the 32d Army Air Defense Command in Europe and Chief Legal Officer for U.S. Army V Corps and U.S. Army forces in the Balkans. Prior to becoming a military lawyer, he served six years as a military intelligence officer. Major General Romig graduated with honors from the Santa Clara University School of Law in 1980. After 34 years of service, he retired from the Army JAG Corps. He served as Deputy Chief Counsel for Operations and Acting Chief Counsel for the Federal Aviation Administration and is currently Dean of Washburn University School of Law in Topeka, Kansas.

Major General Gerald T. Sajer, USA (Ret.)

Major General Sajer was the Adjutant General of Pennsylvania from l987-1995. He served as the assistant Division Commander for maneuver of the 28th Infantry Division, and previously served as the Division's chief of staff and G-3. During the Korean War, he served as a Captain. A graduate of Tufts University and Harvard Law School, General Sajer practiced law in the Harrisburg area for 30 years, specializing in civil litigation. He and his wife have been married for 50 years and have 6 children and 15 grandchildren. They live on a farm near Gettysburg.

Major General Antonio &lsquoTony&rsquo M. Taguba, USA (Ret.)

Major General, Antonio &lsquoTony&rsquo M. Taguba, USA (Ret.) served 34 years on active duty until his retirement on 1 January 2007. He has served in numerous leadership and staff positions most recently as Deputy Commanding General, Combined Forces Land Component Command during Operations Iraqi Freedom in Kuwait and Iraq, as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs, and as Deputy Commanding General for Transformation, US Army Reserve Command. Born in Manila, Philippines in 1950, he graduated from Idaho State University in 1972 with a BA degree in History. He holds MA degrees from Webster University in Public Administration, Salve Regina University in International Relations, and US Naval War College in National Security and Strategic Studies.

Brigadier General Dorian Anderson, USA (Ret.)

General Anderson served 30 years as a Commissioned Officer and later as a Flag Officer US Army, holding leadership and command positions at all levels as an Infantry Officer culminating as Commanding General, US Army Human Resources Command, Alexandria, VA. General Anderson is a 1975 graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, holds an MA in Management from Webster University and is a 1995 graduate of the US Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, PA. He is a 2006 graduate of The Executive Program at University of Virginia&rsquos Darden Business School.

Brigadier General David M. Brahms, USMC (Ret.)

General Brahms served in the Marine Corps from 1963-1988. He served as the Marine Corps' senior legal adviser from 1983 until his retirement in 1988. General Brahms currently practices law in Carlsbad, California and sits on the board of directors of the Judge Advocates Association.

Brigadier General Clarke M. Brintnall, USA (Ret.)

Clarke "Pete" Brintnall retired from the Army as a brigadier general in 1988 after serving as Director of the Inter-American Region and acting Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Inter-American Affairs. Following his retirement he was National Security Council Director of Latin American Affairs. He is a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy.

Brigadier General James P. Cullen, USA (Ret.)

Mr. Cullen is a retired Brigadier General in the United States Army Reserve Judge Advocate General's Corps and last served as the Chief Judge (IMA) of the U.S. Army Court of Criminal Appeals. He currently practices law in New York City.

Brigadier General Evelyn P. Foote, USA (Ret.)

General Foote was Commanding General of Fort Belvoir in 1989. She was recalled to active duty in 1996 to serve as Vice Chair of the Secretary of the Army's Senior Review Panel on Sexual Harassment. She is President of the Alliance for National Defense, a non-profit organization.

Brigadier General David R. Irvine, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General Irvine enlisted in the 96th Infantry Division, United States Army Reserve, in 1962. He received a direct commission in 1967 as a strategic intelligence officer. He maintained a faculty assignment for 18 years with the Sixth U.S. Army Intelligence School, and taught prisoner of war interrogation and military law for several hundred soldiers, Marines, and airmen. He retired in 2002, and his last assignment was Deputy Commander for the 96th Regional Readiness Command. General Irvine is an attorney, and practices law in Salt Lake City, Utah. He served 4 terms as a Republican legislator in the Utah House of Representatives, has served as a congressional chief of staff, and served as a commissioner on the Utah Public Utilities Commission.

Brigadier General John H. Johns, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General John H. Johns, USA (Ret), Ph.D., served in Vietnam and was a key member of a group that developed the Army's counterinsurgency doctrine in the early 1960s at Ft. Bragg and later in the Pentagon. After retirement from active duty, he served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense and then as a professor at the National Defense University for 14 years, where he specialized in National Security Strategy.

Brigadier General Richard O&rsquoMeara, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General Richard O&rsquoMeara is a combat decorated veteran who fought in Vietnam before earning his law degree and joining the Army's Judge Advocate General Corps. He retired from the Army Reserves in 2002 and now teaches courses on Human Rights and History at Kean University and at Monmouth University.

Brigadier General Murray G. Sagsveen, USA (Ret.)

Brigadier General Sagsveen entered the U.S. Army in 1968, with initial service in the Republic of Korea. He later joined the North Dakota Army National Guard. His assignments included Staff Judge Advocate for the 164th Engineer Group, Staff Judge Advocate for the State Area Command, Special Assistant to the National Guard Bureau Judge Advocate, and Army National Guard Special Assistant to the Judge Advocate General of the Army. He completed the U.S. Army War College in 1988. At the time of his retirement in 1996, he was a brigadier general and the senior judge advocate in the Army National Guard. General Sagsveen currently serves as the general counsel of the American Academy of Neurology in St. Paul, Minnesota. In February 2004, he participated in a medical conference in Baghdad, Iraq, and he has been participating in an effort among U.S. specialty medical societies to assist physicians in that country.

Brigadier General Anthony Verrengia, USAF (Ret.)

Brigadier General Verrengia retired from the USAF in 1989, after 38 years of uniformed service. He is a veteran of the Cold War, Korean War, and Vietnam War. He is a Master Navigator, who flew in all types of Military Air Transport Operations for over twenty years. During his career he also held Command and Staff positions in Operations, Plans, Logistics, Training and Personnel, and served at all levels of Air Force Command from the Squadron to Numbered AF, to Major Air Command, to the Air Staff in Washington, DC He is a Graduate of the Air Command and Staff College, The Air War College, the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and the National War College.


Edward Honor Sr. (1933-2008)

Edward Honor, Sr. was a former Lieutenant General of the U.S. Army, former president of the National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA), and one of the founding members of the ROCKS, Inc. Honor is also a lifetime member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Honor served for 35 years as a Transportation Corps Officer and concluded his military career with the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, Meritorious Service Medal, Joint Service Commendation Medal, Army Commendation Medal, among others. Honor was promoted to Brigadier General in 1979, Major General in 1984, and Lieutenant General in 1987. Honor was the Transportation Corps’ first African American officer.

Edward Honor Sr. was born on March 17, 1933 in Melville, Louisiana to Louis and Doretha Jackson Honor. Immediately after graduating from high school in Sunset, Louisiana, Honor enrolled at Southern University and later graduated from the institution in 1954 with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Education. While at Southern Honor enrolled in the Reserve Officer’s Training Corps (ROTC) and upon graduation was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Transportation Corps. Honor entered active duty in 1954, attending Basic Training at the Armor and Transportation Corps schools. His military education also includes the Army Command and General Staff College as well as the Army War College.

Honor served during the Vietnam War as the commander of the 36th Transportation Group and later the 24th Transportation Group. Honor also commanded the 37th Transportation Group in Germany as a Colonel. While serving, Honor helped to found the ROCKS, Inc., the largest professional military officers’ organization with a mostly African American membership. Honor was instrumental in establishing the National Board and several chapters of the ROCKS, Inc.

Honor’s highest positions of command include Commander of the Eastern region, Military Transportation Management Command (MTMC) from 1983 to 1984, Commander of MTMC from 1986 to 1987, and Director of Logistics, Joint Chiefs of Staff at the Pentagon from 1987 until his retirement. After retiring from the U.S. Army in 1989, Honor became the president of the NDTA until 2002.

Honor was known to have had a deep passion for mentoring, and he was renowned in the ROCKS, Inc., Transportation Corps, and throughout the Army for his willingness and skill in mentoring young officers. In fact, the U.S. Army and Transportation Center in 2003 published a biography of Honor titled Mentoring and Leading, written by Richard E. Killblane.

Lieutenant General Honor passed away on September 3, 2008, at 75 years of age. He is survived by his wife, Phyllis, his children, Edward Jr. and Beverly Short, and his grandchildren.


From Slavery to Freedom: The History of the 35th US Colored Troops

Editor’s note: The African American Heritage & Cultural Center of New Bern in partnership with The New Bern Historical Society and the New Bern Sun Journal presents this article. It is one in a portfolio of previously published stories celebrating the rich heritage of our community.

Late historian Dr. John Hope Franklin reportedly cited New Bern and eastern North Carolina as having the most comprehensive African American history in this country. However, as a young African American boy growing up in New Bern during the 1950s and 1960s, I was oblivious to the rich African American history of our community. I can still hear my grandfather’s voice as he repeatedly recounted stories handed down from generation to generation of almost 300 years of family history in Craven County. Most interesting were his stories about the Civil War and his grandfather’s enlistment in the Union Army. Fortunately, I now have the benefit of my own research and that of many respected scholars who have researched and documented a much more factual and inclusive history of the local African American experience. That experience permeates local, state and national history, illustrating our community indeed has “one history, many stories.”

In 1790, when the first census was taken, African Americans numbered about 760,000 — about 19% of the nation’s population (United States Bureau of the Census, Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790 North Carolina). By 1860, at the start of the Civil War, the country’s African American population had increased to 4.4 million. The vast majority were slaves, with only 488,000 counted as “freemen.” The population of North Carolina included 331,059 slaves, representing 33% of North Carolina’s total population (Joseph Kennedy, Population of the United States in 1860 Compiled from the Original Returns of the Eighth Census under the Direction of the Secretary of the Interior). My great-great-grandfather Theophilus George and his wife Sarah, who lived on Clubfoot Creek in North Harlowe, were among only 30,463 North Carolinians listed as free people of color in the 1860 census. This free colored population was mainly found along or near the eastern seaboard, in what has historically been known as the “black district” of North Carolina. Craven County, home to the state’s highest free African American population, with more than one-fifth of the colored population being freemen, provided the region a rich resource of boatmen, builders, laborers, skilled craftsmen and other vocations for the local economy. By the time Theophilus George died in January of 1861, the nation was on the verge of the Civil War.

The Civil War had an immediate and major impact on New Bern and eastern North Carolina. Many citizens, both black and white, felt the question of slavery and of slave holders’ so-called “property rights” in human chattel would finally be settled, as it should have been 85 years earlier by the country’s founding fathers’ powerful words in The Declaration of Independence that “All men are created equal ….” Although most references do not mention the profound impact of the Battle of New Bern on the local African American population, it is clear that New Bern became a mecca for freedom well before the Emancipation Proclamation. Thousands of escaped slaves sought safety within Union lines at New Bern, eventually establishing James City, the largest freeman settlement in the state. New Bern’s progressive black community offered former slave refugees the first rays of hope and renewed faith in the promise of freedom, as local African Americans helped establish some of the state’s first schools, churches, civic organizations and businesses for newly freed slaves. Before the war ended in 1865, black leaders from New Bern and Beaufort led by freedom fighter Abraham Galloway, met with President Lincoln to demand basic rights of citizenship for the newly freed slaves. The historic meeting on April 29, 1864 was the first official White House meeting of its kind with a southern delegation of former slaves (David Cecelski, The Fire of Freedom: Abraham Galloway & The Slaves’ Civil War, pp. 115-117).

With the mounting loss of lives and morale, increasingly intense pressure was brought upon President Lincoln and the War Department to replenish Federal forces. At the insistence of Frederick Douglass and white leaders, the door was finally opened in 1863 for black soldiers to enlist in the Union army in large numbers. The Emancipation Proclamation authorized recruitment of Negro volunteers for Federal service beginning on January 1, 1863.

Influenced by the success of the 54th Massachusetts, Massachusetts Governor John Andrew and General Edward A. Wild saw potential for recruiting former slaves in occupied northeastern North Carolina. Many Union officials in North Carolina opposed raising black troops. Most whites questioned the ability of Negroes in general to perform as soldiers and others believed that ex-slaves were less capable than free blacks. However, since the beginning of New Bern’s occupation in March 1862, thousands of escaped slaves had poured behind the lines seeking freedom and aid. New Bern’s large black population and strong support for the Union made it an ideal location for recruiting fresh troops and laborers (Richard M. Reid, Freedom for Themselves: North Carolina’s Black Soldiers in the Civil War Era).

The efforts of northern civilians and soldiers became crucial for the success of recruiting black soldiers. Governor Andrew was instrumental in drawing attention to North Carolina. The success of his two African American regiments, the 54th and the 55th Massachusetts Volunteers, led him to believe that the South offered potential for black enlistments. He wrote to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton suggesting the idea of sending “some able, brave, tried, and believing man as a brigadier” to raise a brigade in North Carolina. He knew that within Major General John G. Foster’s department there were from 2,500 to 5,000 black men available to be recruited. Several prominent abolitionists such as Wendell Phillips, George Stearns, Edward Kinsley, and Francis Bird were among those who supported Governor Andrew’s efforts. Realizing the difficulty of attracting blacks to join White troops, Andrew recommended sending the 54th Massachusetts Regiment to be the “nest egg of a brigade” of North Carolinians. If the government refused to sanction the North Carolina undertaking, Andrew was prepared to welcome North Carolina fugitives into his Massachusetts regiments. He preferred, however, to see the work going on in the South, where more slaves were apt to volunteer (Brigadier General Fred C. Ainsworth and Joseph W. Kirkley, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, pp. 109-111).

In May 1863 Wild began recruiting for the First North Carolina Colored Volunteers (NCCV), placing the regiment under the command of Colonel James Beecher, half-brother of writer Harriet Beecher Stowe. Recruitment was slow until Abraham Galloway negotiated terms of enlistment and humane treatment of black soldiers (Cecelski, pp. 78-80). Colonel Beecher established the regiment’s campsite on the south bank of the Neuse River just outside of New Bern, and the first recruits went to work clearing land and setting up camp and a parade ground. By June 7, two of seven companies were in uniform and all had begun drill instruction. They were mustered in on June 30, 1863. White soldiers from the Forty-Fifth Massachusetts regiment aided in training. With the exception of Major John V. DeGrasse, Assistant Surgeon and Chaplain John N. Mars, the top officers in the First NCCV were white. Company commanders chose promising enlisted men to serve as sergeants and corporals. Upon completion of training, the regiment joined others in forming General Edward A. Wild’s “African Brigade” (Reid, pp. 22-28). During a farewell ceremony held at the Academy Green in New Bern on July 24, 1863, the “Colored Ladies Relief Association of New Bern” presented the regiment a silk flag (Cecelski, pp.87-89).

Within a short time, the existing black units received orders for Charleston. Officials continued to recruit for the Second and Third NCCV, which took several months to fill and muster. Though the three regiments were intended to form a single brigade, their sequential organization resulted in widely varying experiences and effectiveness. Unlike the Second and Third regiments, the First regiment trained for a longer period of time under the careful supervision of General Wild. Thus, when the First NCCV entered combat, it was better prepared to fight than most other black regiments.

The regiment would prove to be both brave and reliable in battle. The regiment spent several months at Folly Island outside Charleston, where on February 8, 1864, Federal authorities redesignated it the Thirty-Fifth U.S. Colored Troops (USCT). The regiment soon deployed to Florida where it fought at the Battle of Olustee. One report stated “no regiment went into action more gallantly, fought more desperately, or did better execution” than the Thirty-Fifth (Noah Trudeau, Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War 1862-1865, p. 148).

The Battle of Olustee or Battle of Ocean Pond was fought in Baker County on February 20, 1864. Union forces of 5,500 led by Brigadier General Truman B. Seymour were soundly defeated by Confederate Brigadier General Joseph Finnegan’s 6,000 well entrenched soldiers. Though the battle was a federal defeat, the valor displayed by the 35th USCT while providing critical rear-guard fire power for the retreating Federal forces played an important role in changing white attitudes about the capabilities of black troops. “The men’s refusal to collapse in the face of superior numbers and a flanking fire helped to prevent the Union army’s retreat from becoming a rout” (Reid, p.83). However, many Confederate attitudes hardened as evidenced by the atrocities committed on wounded and captured black soldiers and their white officers following the battle (Reid, p. 93). Despite heavy losses, the Thirty-Fifth served for the duration of the war in coastal Georgia and South Carolina. Among the first of more than 100,000 southern black Civil War soldiers, including more than 5,000 from North Carolina, the First NCCV paved the way in demonstrating the importance of black soldiers to the Union’s preservation.

Edward Augustus Wild — Wild was a brigadier general in the Union Army during the Civil War. After suffering a severe wound that required amputation of his left arm, Wild was promoted and assigned to recruiting duties. A fervent abolitionist, he aggressively recruited black soldiers for the United States Colored Troops, as well as helping recruit white officers to lead them. Wild enlisted James C. Beecher to lead the 1st NCCV. Wild took command of a brigade of black infantry that soon became known as “Wild’s African Brigade.” (This and other profiles in this section are drawn from Cecelski and Reid.)

Colonel James Beecher — Beecher commanded the regiment. Brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Henry Ward Beecher, Beecher drifted through various occupations during his early years, including a stint as a missionary in China. Labeled “The Odd One” by a biographer of the Beecher family, James seemed an unlikely candidate to command a regiment in combat, but he had previously served ably as lieutenant colonel in the 141st New York Infantry, and proved an efficient administrator and trainer during the unit’s early months.

William Nikolaus Reed — Reed was originally appointed as a lieutenant colonel and the regiment’s second-in-command on 11 July 1863, by Brigadier General Edward A. Wild. Colonel Beecher was on leave in the north when the Florida campaign began, so Reed commanded the 35th USCT at Olustee, Florida as regimental commander. Reed was reportedly the son of a Haitian mother, which would make him the highest-ranking person of color to serve in the Civil War. “. It also appears that the Lieut Col of the Regt (which is commanded by Col Beecher) is a mulatto and while he has been temporarily in command of the Regt he has done everything in his power to elevate the Negro…” (Letter from Major Horace Wirtz, Department Medical Director, to Major General Quincy Gilmore, Commander of Department of the South). Reed was mortally wounded in February 1864 at Olustee.

Dr. John V. DeGrasse — Regimental surgeon, he was one of the most controversial appointments in the regiment. Major DeGrasse was born in New York City and, on May 19, 1849, received his MD with honors. After graduation he traveled abroad to Paris where he became an assistant to the renowned French surgeon, Alfred Velpeau. When he returned to the States, DeGrasse became the first African American surgeon admitted to a medical society. When war broke out, DeGrasse volunteered his services to the United States Army, thus becoming one of only eight black surgeons to serve in the Union forces and the only African American to serve in a battlefield unit. For his service with the 1st NCCV, Governor Andrew awarded him a gold-hilted sword from the state of Massachusetts.

William Henry Singleton — He was born into slavery in Craven County, North Carolina, near New Bern. During the Civil War, Singleton escaped to Union forces and gained his freedom. In the summer of 1863, he recruited and helped lead the 1st NCCV, which became part of the 35th United States Colored Troops (Cecelski, pp. 76-77). After being wounded in the Battle of Olustee in February 1864, Singleton was assigned to garrison duty in South Carolina, which was occupied by Union troops.

Abraham Galloway — Galloway was born in Smithville (now Southport, North Carolina) in 1837. An escaped slave, Galloway was a fearless spy, courageous freedom fighter, and outspoken political leader who played an important role in supporting the Union Army’s success in North Carolina and the Mississippi valley. By early 1863, Galloway had become eastern North Carolina’s most important spokesman for African American rights. After leading a delegation of black leaders who met with President Abraham Lincoln on the issue of African American suffrage, Galloway attended the National Convention of the Colored Citizens of the United States in Syracuse, New York. He traveled across North Carolina speaking to black audiences about women’s suffrage and equal rights for African Americans. Galloway organized the state’s first Equal Rights Leagues in New Bern and Raleigh and was a leader in founding the North Carolina Republican Party. Following the Civil War, Galloway served in the North Carolina Senate during the Reconstruction period. His untimely death in Wilmington, North Carolina in 1870 was honored by over 6,000 people who attended his funeral

Furney Bryant — Bryant, who was one of the North Carolina noncommissioned officers, came to New Bern as a refugee dressed in rags. Unable to read and write, he joined Superintendent Vincent Colyer’s night classes. Bryant was rewarded for his diligence in school when he was selected to serve as one of General Burnside’s spies. He later enlisted in the 1st NCCV and was promoted to first sergeant for his display of intelligence and leadership.

Luke Martin — One of the first African American soldiers from the South was an enslaved man named Luke Martin. He was born on December 12th, 1836 in the town of Hertford, Perquimans County. Sometime between his birth and 1860 Luke was taken across the Albemarle Sound to Washington County, where he was among the 2,465 human beings accounted for in the county’s 1860 slave census. The total white population of the Eighth United States Census in Washington County enumerated 3,593. In the spring of 1863, Luke escaped from his slaveholder’s plantation near Plymouth and fled across the Tar and Neuse Rivers to the newly established freedom sanctuary behind Union lines in New Bern. Luke Martin enlisted in the First North Carolina Colored Infantry as a free man on May 22, 1863, and was later wounded in the Battle of Olustee. After the war Private Martin settled in New Bern, built a home, raised a family and helped establish and pastor Saint John Missionary Baptist Church.

Many local freemen and former slaves felt the call to fight for the Union, and by the War’s end more than 7,000 of the 180,000 United States Colored Troops hailed from eastern North Carolina. According to Dyer’s Compendium, black troops fought in a total of 449 engagements, 39 of which he rated as major battles. Over 37,000 black soldiers lost their lives in the conflict. Organized in New Bern in June 1863, the 1st NC Colored Volunteers (later designated 35th Regiment, USCT), one of the first Union regiments of former slaves, courageously fought in campaigns in Florida, Georgia and South Carolina.

That same courageous spirit of civic pride, moral leadership and support of this country’s principles of freedom, justice, and equality continues today in the greater New Bern community. In 2016 the Tryon Palace Foundation was awarded a Museums for America: Learning Experiences grant to develop an interpretive program entitled “An Eagle on His Button” based on the experiences of the United States Colored Troops during the American Civil War. With grant assistance, the 35th USCT Reenactment Regiment was created to recruit, train, and educate interpreters who then serve as history ambassadors for the community’s rich and diverse African American heritage. The regiment includes more than twenty reenactors and living historians who proudly participate in historic reenactments and other public events across the state as they share New Bern’s unique African American Civil War history.

Originally published in New Bern Historical Society 2018 ANNUAL JOURNAL

A retired Land & Community Development Administrator at City of New Bern, Bernard George is an historian and active member of the 35th Regiment United States Colored Troop. He serves on the Tryon Palace Board of Directors and its African American Commission. Bernard is a founder and active member of the African American Heritage & Cultural Center of New Bern.


Edward O. Ord - Later Career:

Following President Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, Grant ordered Ord north to investigate and ascertain if the Confederate government had played a role. His determination that John Wilkes Booth and his conspirators had acted alone helped calm demands that the newly-defeated South be punished. That June, Ord assumed command of the Department of the Ohio. Promoted to brigadier general in the regular army on July 26, 1866, he later oversaw the Department of Arkansas (1866-1867), Fourth Military District (Arkansas & Mississippi, 1867-68), and Department of California (1868-1871).

Ord spent the first half of the 1870s commanding the Department of the Platte before moving south to lead the Department of Texas from 1875 to 1880. Retiring from the US Army on December 6, 1880, he received a final promotion to major general a month later. Accepting a civil engineering position with the Mexican Southern Railroad, Ord worked to build a line from Texas to Mexico City. While in Mexico in 1883, he contracted yellow fever prior to departing on business for New York. Falling severely ill while at sea, Ord was landed at Havana, Cuba where he died on July 22. He remains were brought north and interred at Arlington National Cemetery.