People Index

People Index



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People Index

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• Royal Flying Corps •

I have produced a data file comprising RFC/RAF/RNAS aircrew names from a variety of documents and databases, presented in a standard format. The data file can be downloaded and browsed. This has a number of advantages over specific searches in that differences in spelling are highlighted, and there is a greater chance of obtaining all the relevant records compared to specific searches of a database.

The files comprises mainly officers and non-officer aircrew. There are generally multiple entries for each individual. It does not include rank and file unless they died in service or were employed as pilots, observers or aerial gunners. The database does not give a complete history of each individual - you can download the Military record from the AIR 76 series in the National Archives for the full service history of an Officer.

The original data contains a large number of errors and some may remain. The data is provided for information only with no warranty as to its accuracy or completeness.

The combined data file can be downloaded here in comma separated or tab separated text files:

Right click on the file name and specify 'Save link as . '. If loading the data into a spreadsheet open the spreadsheet program first, then open the file, specifying 'text' for each column in order to avoid data corruption.

Surnames A (csv format) (txt format) 11,363 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames B (csv format) (txt format) 41,980 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames C (csv format) (txt format) 33,714 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames D (csv format) (txt format) 20,340 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames E (csv format) (txt format) 7,765 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames F (csv format) (txt format) 13,870 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames G (csv format) (txt format) 20,589 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames H (csv format) (txt format) 35,816 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames I-J (csv format) (txt format) 13,074 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames K (csv format) (txt format) 9,455 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames L (csv format) (txt format) 18,721 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames M (csv format) (txt format) 39,765 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames N-O (csv format) (txt format) 11,911 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames P (csv format) (txt format) 22,012 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames Q-R (csv format) (txt format) 20,374 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames S (csv format) (txt format) 37,627 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames T-V (csv format) (txt format) 20,896 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames W (csv format) (txt format) 30,901 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames X-Z (csv format) (txt format) 1,933 entries. version Jan 2021

Alternatively you can download individual source files in csv format from the explanation sections below.

View a list of abbreviations used in the files.

In addition there are indexes in html format on this website which simply show initials and surname. These are large files and are provided simply to allow search engines to find this page. Do not download these pages - use the .csv/.txt files above, and load them into a spreadsheet or text editor for searching or analysis.

The data file has the following fields:

Field Details
SurnameSurname
RankRank at date of report/incident
InitialsInitials
First namesFirst names if known
DOBDate of birth in format dd.mm.yyyy
RegtRegiment
SqSquadron or RFC/RAF Unit
DateDate of report/incident in format dd.mm.yy
DetailsNarrative
SourceSource document/index - see below for an explanation of sources
RefDocument or Internal image reference
Line no.Sequential Line number
NotesComments and notes

Sources

The following references are used in the 'Source/Ref' field of the data files - see below for a detailed explanation of each source.


Field Details
AIR 76RFC/RAF Officer records
WO 339Army Officer records
ADM 273Royal Naval Air Service military records
WO 372RFC/RAF Medal Index
PoWPrisoners of War (all theatres)
FatalitiesNotifications of death
Casualty BookAll names mentioned in the RFC/RAF casualty books (Western Front only)
Casualty ReportsAll names mentioned in the RFC/RAF Form W3347 aircraft casualty reports
MovementsAll names mentioned on the RFC/RAF Service and Casualty Form - Officers
Casualty CardsAll names mentioned on the RFC/RAF Casualty cards held by the RAF Museum
GazetteLondon Gazette entries for RFC personnel (currently to Oct 1918). The Reference field shows the Gazette year and page number
Army ListArmy List March 1918
RAF ListRAF list April 1918 (currently incomplete)
PostingsSquadron postings
Routine OrdersNames mentioned in Administrative Routine Orders
RAeC CertificatesRoyal Aero Club Aviators Certificates
EmbarkationUnit Embarkation Lists
Nominal RollLists of Officers and Aircrew by Unit at various dates
Log booksDetails extracted from Aircraft and Pilot log books
MiscNames extracted from Miscellaneous documents
USASAll known US airmen casualties and service details.

Detailed explanation of Sources

The combined file above comprises the following individual files, each of which can be downloaded separately.

SERVICE RECORDS

The primary source of personnel information is the RFC/RAF service record.

Records of service for the First World War are held in the National Archives ('TNA'). The records are incomplete.

Army officer records appear in the WO 339 series and RFC/RAF officers in the AIR 76 series. The latter documents have been digitized and can be downloaded online for a small fee, inspected at Kew at no charge, and a watermarked image can be viewed online.

The WO 339 records are in the process of being digitized. Copies can be ordered from Kew, but the WO 339 record does not normally contain a complete service history and the contents of the file are often disappointing.

If an officer transferred from the Army to the RFC/RAF then he will have both an Army (WO 339) and RFC/RAF (AIR 76) file.

Royal Naval Air Service ('RNAS') personnel files are in the ADM 273 series.

The WO 339 index at Kew contains a large number of errors and inconsistencies. I have attempted to clean up the index and produce a more accurate version.

RFC/RAF NCO and rank and file personnel records appear in the National Archives AIR 79 series, indexed in AIR 78. Army rank and file are in WO 363.

An index to Australian personnel appears on the Australian War Memorial site.

The AWM site also contains embarkation lists, War Diaries and other digitized documents.

Similarly, Canadians can be found on the Canadian Library and Archives site.

The TNA has a number of online guides to searching for personnel.

Note that some records are indexed by surname and initials, and some by surname and first names.

There are spelling variations in the TNA data - I recommend you browse my database in the first instance to identify the relevant TNA records.

Service record downloads:

AIR 76: This is the complete (as at March 2014) AIR 76 index to officer service records from the National Archives.

The original data comprises a mixture of records showing surname+initials and surname+firstnames. This makes searching the TNA database tedious. For example if you search for 'Armiger W AIR' on the TNA site you will retrieve his military record but not his medal card. However if you search 'Armiger William AIR' you will find his medal card index entry but not his military record. I have enhanced the TNA index files by including an additional 'initials' field so that all entries can be browsed by surname and initials.

You can download the AIR 76 index individually as .csv files below:

In addition I have transcribed a small number of AIR 76 officer files to show the complete history of each officer:

WO 339: This is the WO 339 index to Army officer service records in the National Archives, as far as they relate to individuals who served with the RFC and RAF, and enhanced by the creation of an 'initials' field.

Note:Not all of these records have been incorporated in the Combined files.

WO 339: Here is entire WO 339 index (140,000 records) for all Army officers, including non-RFC and RAF men and women. This is my cleaned up version and so it differs from the TNA index.

The file has been split into three parts of about 50,000 each so each file can be loaded into a spreadsheet.

Army Regiment names have been standardised to comply with their official titles.

ADM 273: This is the complete (as at March 2014) ADM 273 index to RNAS officer service records in the National Archives, enhanced by the creation of an 'initials' field.

MEDALS AND AWARDS

Most individuals who served during the war were awarded a service medal. An index to awards appears in the TNA WO 372 series.

Awards were also given for specific acts of gallantry or for general meritorious service. Awards were published in the London Gazette (see below) along with details of the act of gallantry, where applicable.

This is the complete (as at March 2014) WO 372 index to Medal card entries in the National Archives, as far as it relates to individuals who served with the RFC and Army, and enhanced by the creation of an 'initials' field.

The medal index for individuals who served only with the RAF (i.e. after 1st April 1918) has not yet been released

1918 MUSTER ROLL

Rank and file who transferred to the newly formed Royal Air Force on 1st April 1918 were listed on the RAF Muster Roll.

The Muster Roll has been digitized by the RAF Museum and is available here

PRISONERS OF WAR

The National Archives only have limited information on Prisoners of War, but a few interviews with repatriated prisoners are available.

Cox & Co, who acted as agents for many officers, produced a book listing Officers who had been taken PoW (although the book contains errors).

Weekly communiques from the War Office listed casualties, including PoW. This was reproduced weekly in 'Flight' magazine, which is available online.

At the end of the war enquiries were made in order to ascertain the fate of missing aircrew. Lists of missing men were produced and the results of enquiries recorded. These lists are held in the AIR 1 series at the National Archives, particularly AIR 1/162, /435, /963, /1790, /1973, /1976, and /2395.

In addition there is a card index for each officer listing intelligence information on the fate of individuals.

The RAF Museum Casualty cards (see below) contain details of PoW's and their date of repatriation.

The International Red Cross have made all their WW1 records available online and these can be searched at International Red Cross

I have produced a partial list of aircrew Prisoners of War:

FATALITIES

The Commonwealth War Graves site lists all war casualties, often with some background information in respect of next-of-kin. Not all personnel who died whilst serving with the RFC/RAF are identified as such in the CWGC database: do not select the 'Air Force' checkbox when searching.

A list of casualties has also been published as 'Airmen died in the Great War 1914-1918' - see Reference section. Some of the aircraft serials quoted in the book are incorrect.

A partial Roll of Honour also appears in 'De Ruvigny's Roll of Honour, which includes biographies and photographs.

HMSO also published lists of casualties in 'Soldiers Died in the Great War 1914-1919' and 'Officers Died in the Great War 1914-1919'.

Canadian records of fatalities can be viewed or downloaded from the Canadian Circumstances of Death Register

You can download a complete list of RFC/RAF fatalities as an individual .csv file below:

Americans

Tracing U.S. personnel is complicated by the fact that most records are organized by State.

A list of all U.S. Officer airmen appears in the book 'Wings of Honor' by James J. Sloan jr. This records casualties by unit but unfortunately does not have a separate schedule of casualties.

The National Archives has some details of U.S. airmen serving with R.F.C./R.A.F./R.N.A.S. units including accidents, and these are included in the other files on this website.

The American Battle Monuments Commission website has details of American casualties buried overseas.

The U.S. National Archives have online pdf files, organised by State, listing all U.S. WW1 casualties, including enlisted men and showing their unit.

Identifying members of the Air Service involves going through each file for each State and extracting the relevant entries. Fortunately I have done this and produced a file showing all Officers and enlisted men belonging to the Air Service and related units who died in service during the war and up to mid 1919.

The file also includes miscellaneous lists of U.S. airmen serving with British units

Individual States also have records of war dead, and these are indexed here

U.S. Draft registration cards can be accessed via familysearch

Note that the single largest loss of U.S. airmens lives was on the 5th Feb 1918 with the sinking of the S.S. Tuscania

Canadians

A list of Canadian Naval Airmen appears here: Canadian Naval Aviators

And an official Canadian government list (incomplete) is here: Canadian Airmen of WW1

I have formatted this data into a format consistent with the rest of this website:

A database of Canadian soldiers in WW1 is here: Canadian WW1 database

Russians

108 Russian airmen attended courses with the RFC during 1917.

ACCIDENTS

Casualty Report

When an aircraft was seriously damaged a Form W3347 Casualty Report was completed. If personnel were also injured this was also mentioned. The report would not be compiled if the accident only related to injuries to personnel.

Transcripts of all the available Casualty Reports can be downloaded from the Aircraft section of this site, which includes an example report.

The following file reformats the casualty report file by surname. The majority of entries relate to the Western front, but there are some reports for home-based units and other theatres of war.

Casualty Book

A Casualty book was maintained by RFC HQ in France listing serious injuries to personnel incurred whilst flying, and missing aircrew. The book was updated if further information came to light, such as a German report on the fate of missing aircrew. It only includes Western Front casualties

All the available Casualty Book entries can be downloaded from the Aircraft section of this site, which includes an example page from the book.

The following file reformats the Casualty Book data by surname.

Casualty Card

Casualty Cards were maintained for each RFC/RAF individual whenever they were injured or killed.

The RAF Museum recently digitized the cards and they are available here

The existing Museum database contains a number of errors and as with any WW1 data you should check alternative spellings of names and different initials when searching.

An enhanced and corrected version of the data appears below.

POSTINGS

Service and Casualty Form

Service and Casualty Forms B.103 were maintained for each RFC/RAF officer.

These forms show details of promotions and postings between squadrons and other units as well as their fate.

They relate only to overseas service with the Expeditionary Forces (France, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Balkans).

The RAF Museum recently digitized the cards and they are available here

I have corrected and enhanced these cards to include principal unit postings.

Movement Forms (version May 2019. 32538 records)

LONDON GAZETTE

All Officer appointments and promotions to the Armed Services were printed in the London Gazette which is available for free download online. Rank and file appointments were not published, but lists and citations for significant honours and awards in respect of rank and file were included.

Extracts from the Gazette were printed in Daily Routine orders by each unit and in 'Flight' magazine - see below.

The Gazette database relies on digitized pdf files and is not 100% accurate. Make searches as wide as possible. When specifying a date range remember that an announcement could appear many months after the date of appointment/promotion.

The file below is a near complete extract of London Gazette entries from 1912 to October 1918 (the data range will be extended in due course).

I have converted Gazette announcements to a standard format and consequently the entries are non verbatim. I have not included the full text of award citations.

The Gazette was originally referenced by page number, and this is what is used in the indexes produced by the London Gazette. Unfortunately the new Gazette website uses Issue numbers rather than page numbers. However, specifying a single year in the date range and entering the page number in the search field generally returns the relevant page. If not, enter the previous or next page number and scroll backwards or forwards once you retrieve the document.

MONTHLY ARMY LIST/RAF LIST

The monthly Army List recorded all officers of the Army, including the RFC.

The list showed the Army unit from which the officer had transferred, or whether he was a member of the RFC Special Reserve or on the General List. His date of appointment is also recorded.

From April 1918 RAF (and former RNAS) Officers were shown in the Royal Air Force List, and the former Army unit and date of promotion was no longer listed. The March 1918 Army list is thus in many ways more useful than the April 1918 RAF list, except that the latter confirms the names of the officers who transferred to the RAF.

Note that both lists show appointments and promotions that have appeared in the London Gazette (see below) up to the date the list was published. As there could be a delay of several months, and sometimes up to a year, before an announcement was made in the Gazette the lists do not reflect the complete status of the Army of RAF on any particular date.

The Army and RAF lists are available at the TNA, Imperial War Museum and some public libraries.

The RAF List for April 1918 has been digitized by the RAF Museum and is available here

A quarterly list was also published but this did not give a complete listing of Officers. Post-war quarterly lists are available online.

The RAF Lists for 1919 and onwards have been digitized by the National Library of Scotland and are available here

I am in the process of transcribing this: RAF List Feb 1919 (version Dec 2020)

The following is the complete Army list for March 1918 as far as it relates to the RFC.

POSTINGS

All postings of officers to individual units appear on their military record (see above). A ledger containing details of the posting of Officers during 1915 appears in AIR 1/2432 in the National Archives.

Individual posting orders appear in the voluminous correspondence files from AIR 1/362 to AIR 1/407.

Postings also appear in each units Routine Orders, or the Routine Orders of the Administrative Wing

and also in the postings letters in AIR 1/1080

The following file comprises entries from the Postings ledger (AIR 1/2432), the letters in AIR 1/1080 as well as some miscellaneous postings from correspondence files.

ROUTINE ORDERS

Each unit of the RFC prepared daily routine orders which included movements of personnel. The RO's give an interesting insight into daily life. A detailed explanation of the entries and an example page appears in the 'Aircraft' section of this site.

The RO's are held in the AIR 1 series at the TNA but are incomplete.

The file below includes names mentioned in various Routine Orders, in particular early orders from the Administrative Wing. It is not a complete list.

ROYAL AERO CLUB CERTIFICATES

Lists of RAeC certificates for 1910 to 1916 appear on Wikipedia and Graces Guide online.

They were also published weekly in 'Flight' magazine which is available online - see below, although the list is incomplete.

Most of the ancestry and genealogical websites also have lists of RAeC certificates, which included a photograph of the aviator. Some of these sites can be accessed without charge at public libraries.

The ADM 273 files generally include reference to any RAeC certificate and state the location of the test.

The issue of wartime certificates continued until 1928

This is an index to Royal Aero Club Certificates up to 1928.

EMBARKATION LISTS

Some embarkation lists for officers appear in the correspondence files from AIR 1/362 to AIR 1/407.

Embarkation lists for Australian personnel on departure from Australia, including rank and file, appear on the Australian War memorial website in the AWM8 series.

All of the Australian officers (but not rank and file) shown on these rolls have been included on this website.

The following file gives the names of Officers mentioned on various embarkation lists appearing in the correspondence files. Later data comes from schedules of recipients of secret maps, issued for the flight across the Channel.

The lists represent the names of officers who were scheduled to leave and consequently due to accident or illness some officers may not have made the crossing.

The lists include some Kite Balloon sections and also Australian Officers embarking in Australia for Britain and Egypt.

NOMINAL ROLLS

Nominal Rolls of Officers and aircrew for each Squadron or Unit were produced at least monthly.

Sadly few survive and the quality of many is very poor. I have transcribed the majority of surviving lists.

Due to the quality of the original documents (particularly June 1917), some errors remain in these documents.

LOG BOOKS

These are the names extracted from various Aircraft and Aircrew log books.

A few aircraft log books are held by the National Archives and transcripts appear in the 'Aircraft section of this site. The majority of personal log books are held by the RAF Museum and I am very grateful to Mick Davis for providing copies of a large number of books.

This section will be added as time permits.

'FLIGHT' MAGAZINE

This weekly magazine published RAeC certificates, appointments and promotions, a roll of honour and obituaries as well as extracts from newspaper reports on the progress of the war and general aviation topics.

The Flight archive is available online at Flightglobal.

(Note that when using a search engine to find information you can limit your search to a specific site by using a search string such as: 'Flying Corps' site: www.flightglobal.com)

SQUADRON RECORDS

Several squadron/unit records include details of personnel:

A 'Field Report/Return' was prepared weekly showing personnel movements, sick lists and casualties.

A War Diary was prepared daily which would include details of significant operational activities, movements and casualties in narrative form.

The 'Record Book' listed the aircraft and crews participating in each mission or flight (The term 'Record Book' is however sometimes also used to describe other miscellaneous ledgers).

Post-war the War Diary and Record Book were combined into a single document referred to as the Operations Record Book ('ORB') and a few early documents survive in this form in the AIR 27 to AIR 29 series.

Reports were filed recommending personnel for promotion or recording conduct.

All of these records are incomplete. Surviving records are mainly in the AIR 1 series at the TNA. War diaries and some routine orders for Australian units are held by the Australian War memorial and are available online.

COMBATS IN THE AIR

Aerial combats were recorded on Army Form 3348. These are held by the TNA in various files in the AIR 1 series, and have been collated into the book 'The Sky Their Battlefield' -see Reference section.

MISCELLANEOUS OTHER SOURCES

The following file comprises names extracted from the miscellaneous file in the Aircraft section of the site. It includes data from operations record books and correspondence files.


Our History

Great Polynesian Migration
Cook Islanders are true Polynesians connecting directly back to the finest seafarers of the Pacific. Sophisticated navigation took them fearlessly in search of new lands. Their bravery, skill and sheer strength far outpace legendary adventurers from Portugal or Spain, the Dutch or the English. From 1500 BC Polynesian islands were gradually populated by Maori ancestors who landed in their Vakas (magnificent giant double-hulled canoes) guided by the stars and their famous power of navigation. The very centre of Polynesia, the Cook Islands stretch out in a scattering of 2 million square kilometers. Polynesians arrived in Rarotonga around 800 AD, sailing from Tupua’i, now French Polynesia.

The Maori migrations to New Zealand began from Rarotonga as early as the 5th century AD. Closely linked in culture and language to the Maori in New Zealand, the Maohi of French Polynesia, the Rapanui of Easter Island and the Kanaka Maoli of Hawaii – about 87% of Cook Islanders are Polynesian Cook Island Maori.

Captain James Cook
After stopovers from Spanish explorers Alvaro de Mendana sighting Pukapuka in 1595, and Pedro Fernandez de Quiros sighting Rakahanga in 1606, Captain James Cook sighted Manuae in 1773, then subsequently Palmerston, Takutea, Mangaia and Atiu, where Lieutenant Gore landed in 1777. The redoubtable Captain William Bligh first sighted Aitutaki in 1789 and soon after, following the very bloody Mutiny on the Bounty, the buccaneer Fletcher Christian, having seconded Captain Bligh’s very own boat, sailed into Rarotonga.

Christian Missionaries
The influence of the first Christian missionaries in 1821 was immediate. Reverend John Williams of the London Missionary Society and his missionaries did their best to stem what they considered the carnal desires of the inhabitants, but was in fact the cultural heritage of the Cook Islanders. No singing, dancing or drumming was allowed. Their arrival altered the traditional way of life, yet somehow the Cook Islanders have managed to beautifully preserve their proud Polynesian heritage and blend it with their Christian faith. Aitutaki was the first island of the Cook Islands to accept Christianity so in 1823 a limestone coral rock church was built in Arutanga and is the oldest church in the Cook Islands. The stunning acoustics of CICC Church make for a moving experience - visitors are wowed by the beautiful sound of hymn singing surrounded by a superbly designed interior. The influence of the missionaries has been of benefit to all, with the beautiful white churches, the acapella singing on Sundays and the traditional muumuu coming from them.

Political History
Originally named the Hervey Isles after a British lord, the Russians named them the Cook Islands in honour of the famous captain in 1823. In 1888 they became a part of the British Dominion, due to fears France may seize the islands first.

In 1901 New Zealand decided to annex the country despite opposition from the traditional chiefs. Many of the islands were independently ruled by local chiefs with no federal statutory law to decide such things. However it remained a protectorate until 1965, when as a self-governing state under New Zealand’s auspices, Sir Albert Henry was elected Prime Minister. Today the country is essentially independent or self-governing in free association with New Zealand, which oversees defence.

A treaty was signed in June 1980 with the United States in which all claim to the islands of Penrhyn, Pukapuka, Manihiki and Rakahanga was relinquished by the Americans. A treaty with France delimited the boundary between the Cooks and French Polynesia in 1990.

Signs of historic & cultural significance on Rarotonga

Explore Rarotonga on your own time and in your own way, by visiting sites of cultural and historical significance. Learn the history of the Cook Islands Christian Churches (CICC) scattered around the island. Their origins with the London Missionary Society, and the important com- munity figures that helped to grow the Christian faith on Rarotonga.
Discover the story of Tuoro, infamously known as Black Rock and the cultural significance behind this site. Its ties to the Cook Islands people and the land of their ances- tors, Avaiki.
Self-discover these sites and many more to learn the history and culture of Rarotonga and its people.



Watch The Virginia Indians: Meet the Tribes and download a Meet the Tribes student activity book (PDF).

European colonists arriving in Virginia may have been greeted with, "Wingapo." Indians have lived in what is now called Virginia for thousands of years. While we are still learning about the people who inhabited this land, it is clear that Virginia history did not begin in 1607. If you ask any Virginia Indian, "When did you come to this land?", he or she will tell you, "We have always been here."

Use the menu to the right to navigate sub-sections of this topic and learn more about the people now called Virginia Indians:


History Personnel

Our department's full-time and part-time faculty members are a dynamic group of scholars whose expertise covers the fields of American, Asian, Canadian, European, Latin American and Middle Eastern history, as well as a wide range of thematic specializations. As members of one of Canada's highest ranked history departments, faculty are committed to excellence in teaching and research as indicated by the consistently high teaching ratings and publishing awards many receive. Reflective of Western University's commitment to inter-disciplinary study and internationalization, the Department of History's scholars present an international curriculum relevant to undergraduate and graduate students of diverse background and heritage. The historians in our department are always available to speak with current and potential students about the many vocational and occupational benefits arising from the study of history, and regularly engage with the general public as well as the wider scholarly community to communicate our ongoing academic initiatives.


Part Time Faculty

William Acres

Research Interests

Professor Acres current work 'Breaking Trust and the New England Company at the Grand River Mission, 1827-1934' and 'John Strype, New Histories and Old Religion, 1680-1737'

Jonathan Bayer

Michael S. Fulton

Professor Fulton studies the history and archaeology of conflict during the Middle Ages, focusing primarily on the crusades and interactions in the Levant during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. His current research projects relate to the contest for control of Egypt in the late twelfth century and the history and development of the great castle of Kerak in Transjordan. 

Sara Khorshid

Research Interests

Decolonization and postcolonialism in the 20th century the cultural history of the Cold War modern Middle Eastern history modern Egyptian history popular culture and history 20th-century American history transnational history Arab-Western encounters

Sara Khorshid has also studied Canadian history and Canadian gender history extensively.

Don Spanner

Research Interests

Professor Spanner's research interests include Archival Studies, Reference Services and Outreach Development, Conservation and Preservation Management and Ontario History  

Cary Takagaki

Research Interests

Professor Takagaki's research interests include East Asian Studies and Japanese Studies.

Jeffery Vacante

Research Interests

Professor Vacante is a Canadian historian who specializes in the intellectual, political, and gender history of Quebec. His work examines Quebec nationalism in the twentieth century.

Master's and Co-Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Acknowledgements

Development of this collection was made possible, in part, with financial support from the Manitoba Heritage Grants Program.

The Manitoba Historical Society is grateful for the contributions of many people to the development of this collection, including the following:

Alan Arnett MacLeod Adams, Holly Adams, Don Addison, Doug Allan, Pat Allan, Robert Alldritt, Peter Allison, Grant Anderson, LeAnn Anderson, Donald Andrew, Michael Andrews, Peter Andrusiak, Mary Angus-Yanke, Gary Annable, Jim Argue, Colleen Armstrong, Paul Armstrong, E. James Arnett, Janet Arnett, Terry Arnett, Anna Arrol, Margaret-Ann Lowes Ashton, James Astwood, Nick Atkinson, Edmund A. Aunger, Louise Ayotte, Valerie Bailey, Marilyn Baker, Diane Balfour, Garth Balint, Monica Ball, Beth Balsillie, Jacob Barclay, Stan Barclay, Donna Barraclough, Sharon Baum, Lynne Bereza, Donna Berg, Norma Bergman, Dorine Best, Bonnie Bileski, Charles Bird, Lissa Bjornson, Jim Blanchard, Lucien Bleau, Audrey Blommaert, Stephanie Boissonneault, Lynne Bootes, Vivan Boulos, Marie-Hélène Bourdeau, Marilyn Boyle, Susan Bracken, Mary Lou Bradley, Arthur Braid, Virginia Braid, Elizabeth Braunlin, Nels Bremner, Deborah Bridge, Jill Brooks, R. J. Brotherhood, Diane Brown, Brian Bruser, Anthony Bryant, Deirdre Bryden, Linda Brydon, Donald Bryk, Christine Buckley, Heather Buggie, Catharine Buie, John Buie, Carole Burman, James A. Burns, Jim Busby, Wendy Cairns, John Calder, Véronique Cantin, Barbara Carmichael, David Carr, Robert Carr, Marguerite Carter-Kerr, Lorena Chalkey, Pat Chandler, Arthur Chapman, Ray Chapman, Richard Chartier, Lawrie Cherniack, Matthew Chisholm, Joan Christensen, Robert Clark, Janice Clarke, Christine Clement, Marcia Clement, Jonathan Coe, Sam Coghlan, Agnes Collins, Alex Collins, Ceridwen Collins-West, Murray Conklin, Judy Cook, Kelly Cook, Cathy Cooke, Georgia Cordes, William Harvey Couling, Jane Cousens, Dave Craig, David Crawley, Darelen Crone-Todd, Mike Crosby, Alan Crossin, Marilyn Crossley, Avril Cude, Penelope Cummine, Nancy Findlater Cutway, Brian Cyr, L. Daniells, Wallace Darichuk, Yolanda Davidowich, Allan Dawson, Karen Edgerton, Elizabeth Day, David Delcourt, Olivier Delcourt, Evelyn Ward de Roo, Markus Derrer, Isabelle Devereux, Stacey Devereaux, Reid Dickie, Jan Dixon, Susan Dixon, Kenneth F. Doig, Caryn Douglas, Grant Doupe, Harry Brian Down, Jennifer Doyle, Leslie Drewniak, Crystal Ducharme, Louise Dufort, Leslie Dunford, Shelley Dunlop, Michael Dupuis, Lea Duval, Lindsay DuVal, Alice-Marie Dyck, Dennis Egan, Irene Elliott, Charlene Enns, Stefan Epp, Anne Evans, Areta Evans, Alan Evans-Hendrick, Monika Feist, David G. Ferguson, Greg Ferguson, James Findlater, Sandra Findlay, Mary Finnegan, Joel Fishman, John Ford, Susan Forsyth, Michael Fry, Jane Fudge, Ronald Fusee, Ross and Maureen Gage, Blair Galston, Robert Galston, John Allan Garland, Marilyn Gelinas, Nelson Gerrard, Lee Gibson, Helen Gillespie, Susan Gillmeister, Elizabeth Ginn-Fyon, Daneille Giroux, Gordon Goldsborough, Leonard H. Goldsborough, Douglas Goodbun, Gerry Goodridge, Robert Goodwin, Norman Gould, Alexander Graham, Angela Graham, David Graham, Sharon Granger, Ryan Grant, Anne Grape, Darlene Green, Shawn Greenberg, Ed Greenburgh, Laurena Greene, Scott Greenlay, Ernesto Griffith, Shae Griffith, Jackelyne Gudz, Kerry Guenter, Sylvia Guertin-Riley, Carrie Guilbault, John Gunn, Henry Gutman, Michael Guttormson, William DuVal Guy, Denise Hahn, Megan Halprin, Reese Halter, Peggy Hamilton, Margerett Hansen, Signy Hansen, Kenneth Hanssen, Julia Harding, Gillian Harkness, Wendy Hart, Nathan Hasselstrom, Peter William Hay, George Henderson, Barbara L. Hendy, Lynda Hiebert, Conrad Hild, Barbara Newcombe Hill, Fred Hill, Gord Hines, Cora Hoeppner, Alan Holl, Gordon Hoskin, Liz Houghtling, Doris Hovorka, Fran Howard, Jamie Howison, Joyce Hubble, Alison Hunt, Gael Huntley, Mark Huston, Gill Hutchinson, Julie Hutton, Sheila Ingle, Arnold Irvine, John Isbister, Robert Bowes Jackson, Grace Jacobs, Susan Janzen, William Henry Jenkins, Becky Johnson, Kathy Johnson, Susan Johnson, James Johnstone, Alan Jones, Keith Jones, Sarah Jones, Bill Kable, Erik Kamermans, Barbara Kamienski, Len Kaminski, Stephanie Karsten, Frances Kasper, Guy Gavriel Kay, Andrew Kear, Kris Keen, Joseph Keeper, Maurice Kendall, Craig Kennedy, James Kenney, Ross Keough, Phyllis Ketcheson, Brenda Keyser, David Kimmel, Dennis R. King, Carole Kirby, Janet Kirkconnell, Steve Kirkland, Robert Klassen, Jerry Klinger, Randy Kohuch, Frank Korvemaker, James Kostuchuk, Ted Krasicki, Monica Kreiter, David J. Kroft, Arthur Krolman, L. D. Laird, Charlie Lamb, Audrhea Lande, Marc Lapensée, Martin Lasan, Michel Lavoie, Joanne Leathem, Gerard LeBlanc, Tracy Ledyard, Huguette Le Gall, Harriet Lehrbaum, Lynn Lewis, Sharon Light, Daniel Lindley, Anne Lindsay, Blaine Little, Virginia Lockett, Lyle Lockhart, Norie Lousley, Dennis Lovie, Peter Lyall, Donald Macbeth, Chris Macdonald, Shaun Machesney, Douglas MacKay, Sydney MacKenna, Danalyn MacKinnon, Candace Macpherson, Connor Mah, Keith Maitland, Katherine Maki, Dunc Malcolm, Linda Maliteare, Suzanne Marion, Alison Marshall, Barbara Martin, Geoff Martin, Jane M. Mather, Bill Matheson, Elizabeth Matheson, Fitz Matheson, Howard Mathieson, Laura Matychuk, Peter Maxfield, Roger Maxwell, Elaine May, Kathryn Mayberry, Brian Mayes, Tony Mayes, Sara Mazzoni, Judith McAnanama, Elizabeth Anne McBride, James McClelland, Jean McCollum, Jim McCullough, Valerie McCully, Gordon McDiarmid, Serena McDiarmid, Carole McDonald, Dennis McDonald, John W. McDonald, Patrick McDougall, Colin McElrea, Shelley McFarlane, Eileen McIntyre, Benjamin McKay, Bruce McKenzie, Kathy McKibbin, Jane McLaughlin, Sharon Ingalls McLean, Stuart McLean, Carol Sisson McLeod, Eleanor McMurchy, Alison McNeill-Hordern, Kathy McPhail, Lisa McRorie, Dr. Peter Meehan, Brenda Meninger, Brian Midwinter, Brenda Wardrop Miller, Jordan Miller, Megan Miller, Brent Mitchell, Gordon Mitchell, Grant Mitchell, Vic Mollot, Jane Moody, Cheryl Moore, Richard K. Moore, Kent Morgan, Gordon A. Morley, Anne Morton, Shawn Morton, William Morton, John Mott, Dana Murray, Linda Murtsell, Gerald Neufeld, Caroline Newcombe, Bill Newell, Joan Newton, Marjorie Nicholson, Judy Nixon, Dianne Nolin, Kenneth Normand, Rick Northwood, Donna O'Keefe, Louise Olson, Robert Onysko, David Osborne, Benjamin Hugh Osler, Gord Pace, Barbara Lee Page, David Palmquist, Bobbi Jo Panciera, Juliann Parsons, John Parton, Jill Paskewitz, Jean Paterson, Jeanette Paynter, Faye Pearson, Betty Peloquin, Pandita Pemberton, Janet Penrose, William J. Perdue, John Perrin, David Peters, Ray Phillips, Sandra Phillips, Alan Philp, Alison Poetker, Kelli Polsinelli, Robert Potter, Bruce Pratt, David Pratt, Bob Préfontaine, John Prins, Charlotte Proctor, Elaine Proctor, Lawrence Prout, John Quinton, Elizabeth Radford, Cliff Ralph, Dolores Proulx Rapinchuk, Bill Reimer, Helga Margrét Reinhardsdóttir, Norine Reiser, Norma Richards, Virginia Richards, Pierre Riley, Tim Roark, Wendy Stalker Robertson, Sandy Robinson, Claudette Rocan, David Rodas-Wright, Charlotte Root, Daniel Ross, Mary Louise Ryan, Ron Sanderson, Ivan Saxton, Perry Schulman, Sally Schultz, Paul Seaman, Craig Sefton, Peggy Sharpe, Diane Shaw, Lisa Shore, Valda Shrimpton, Jacky Shum, Susan Sienema, Warren Sigfusson, Paul Silverstone, Elaine Simpson, Lawrence R. Sinclair, Charmeyn Sinclaire, Dianne Singleton, Gail Singleton, Karen Skinner, Hope Smith, Jim Smith, Joy Smith, Marta Smith, Robert Smith, Ron Smith, Geraldine Sookorukoff, Fred Soronow, Luther Sousa, Kelly Southworth, Tanya Spahmann, Wayne A. Stacey, Carol Stanley, Peter Staples, Ed Stephens, Bill Stevens, Christopher Stevenson, George Stewart, Peter Stockdill, Stephanie Stokes, Donald F. Stott, Bonnie Stovel, Nancy Streuber, Joanne Struch, C. Terry Sturk, Alix Sullivan, Brian Sumner, Grant Sutherland, George Tacik, Ed Taillefer, Sherrianne Talon, Isobel Hills Tamney, John Taylor, Peter Duncan Thomas, Peter Wesley Thompson, Verna D. Thompson, Willard Allen Thompson, Donna Thorvaldson, Jason Tiller, Kathy Tod, David L. Towers, Brenda Triggerson, Jason Tucker, Michelle Turenne-Smith, Joan Turner, Keith Turner, Mark Turner, Shelley Turner, Elizabeth Vaitkus, Sylvia Valentine, Louise Van Belleghem, Kathy Van Dusen, Megan Vannucci, Harvey Van Sickle, Mark R. Vanstone, Bruce Varcoe, Charlene Wadelius, Allison Wadge, Amy Best Wadley, Gerald Wadley, Lori Wakelam, Vicki Wallace, Richard Ward, Janet L. Washbon, Marcie Waugh, Joseph P. Wawrykow, Marianne Wawrykow, Jan Webb, Terry Webber, Linda Wessels, Trevor Westwood, Pat Hughes Wheatley, Janet White, Bruce Wiebe, Niall Williams, Rod Wilson, Lynne Wingate, Ian Witney, Mendy Wolchock, Kaye Wolstenholme, Dianne Wood, Edgar Wright, Rick Yarish, Donald D. Young, Maria Zbigniewicz, and Dorothy Zetterberg.


Key People in Labor History

César Estrada Chávez
Folk hero and symbol of hope who organized a union of farm workers.

Nelson Hale Cruikshank
Helped create Social Security and Medicare.

Eugene Victor Debs
Apostle of industrial unionism.

Thomas Reilly Donahue
Champion of labor renewal and former AFL-CIO president.

Arthur Joseph Goldberg
Legal strategist for the union movement and former secretary of labor.

Samuel Gompers
First and longest-serving president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

William Green
Former AFL president who moved the federation toward "social reform unionism."

Joe Hill
Songwriter, itinerant laborer, union organizer—and martyr.

Sidney Hillman
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America founder who invented trade unionism as we know it today.

Mother Jones
"The most dangerous woman in America."

Lane Kirkland
Former AFL-CIO president who had a profound effect on world affairs.

John L. Lewis
President of the Mine Workers (UMWA) and founding president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

Lucy Randolph Mason
Social reformer dedicated to workers' rights and racial justice.

Peter J. McGuire
The "father" of Labor Day and May Day who championed the need for a national labor federation.

George Meany
The builder of the modern AFL-CIO.

Philip Murray
CIO president who helped transform the industrial union movement into a stable and powerful organization.

Frances Perkins
Committed labor secretary and first woman in a presidential Cabinet position.

Esther Eggertsen Peterson
Eloquent and effective advocate for the rights of workers, women and consumers.

A. Philip Randolph
Organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and fought discrimination in national defense.

Walter Reuther
Longtime president of the UAW and was considered the model of a reform-minded, liberal trade unionist.

Bayard Rustin
Brilliant theorist, tactician and organizer and first head of the A. Philip Randolph Institute.


In 1849, cousins Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhart founded Charles Pfizer & Company in a red brick building in Brooklyn, NY.

The expansion propelled by the Civil War continues and Pfizer's revenues double.

The company now has a substantially increased product line and 150 new employees. To accommodate this growth, it buys and renovates a post-Revolutionary-era building at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan and moves its headquarters there. The site carries the Pfizer name for nearly a century.

Spurred by America's westward expansion and its own growing number of clients west of the Mississippi, Pfizer opens offices and a warehouse in Chicago, Illinois, its first location outside of New York.

Pfizer files an official certificate of incorporation in the state of New Jersey, with authorized capital of $2 million divided into 20,000 shares of $100 each.

Pfizer would remain a privately held company until June 22, 1942, when 240,000 shares of new common stock were offered to the public

Emile Pfizer, Charles Pfizer's youngest son, is appointed President at a special board meeting. He serves as President from 1906 to 1941 and briefly as Chairman in 1941. He is the last member of the Pfizer/Erhart family to be actively involved with the company.

At the age of 82, Charles Pfizer dies while vacationing at his Newport, Rhode Island estate. A tribute to Pfizer in The New York Tribune notes that "by bringing to his task a thorough German technical education, great industry, and determination, he successfully met all difficulties and each year expanded his business." Company sales exceed $3 million.

The Board of Directors creates the position of Chairman and elects John Anderson to that post. Anderson, who had joined Pfizer in 1873 as a 16-year-old office boy, would remain Chairman until 1929.

Pfizer chemist James Currie and his assistant, Jasper Kane, successfully pioneer the mass production of citric acid from sugar through mold fermentation—an achievement that eventually frees Pfizer from dependency on European citrus growers.

Spurred by this invention, Kane goes on to develop a new deep-tank fermentation method using molasses rather than refined sugar as raw material—the process that will ultimately unlock the secret for large-scale production of penicillin.

Charles Pfizer & Co. turns 75 years old. A celebration at the Brooklyn plant, which has 306 employees, marks the milestone.

On January 10, 1929, John Anderson announces he is stepping down as chairman of the board. William Erhart is named the new chairman, Emile Pfizer continues to serve as president, and John Anderson's son, George, becomes senior vice president.

Doctor Richard Pasternack develops a fermentation-free method for producing ascorbic acid, vitamin C. After building a new plant and initiating a 24-hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week production schedule, Pfizer becomes the world's leading producer of vitamin C.

Encouraged by this success, Pfizer pushes ahead in 1938 with production of vitamin B-2, or riboflavin, and eventually develops a vitamin mix that includes riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, and iron. From vitamin B-12, the company moves on to vitamin A, and by the late 1940s, Pfizer will become the established leader in the manufacture of vitamins.

Pfizer succeeds so well in the production of citric acid by fermenting sugar that a pound of citric acid, which had cost $1.25 in 1919, tumbles to 20¢, and Pfizer is widely recognized as a leader in fermentation technology.

Pfizer responds to an appeal from the United States Government to expedite the manufacture of penicillin to treat Allied soldiers fighting in World War II. Of the companies pursuing mass production of penicillin, Pfizer alone uses fermentation technology.

In a risky maneuver, Pfizer's senior management invests millions of dollars, putting their own assets as Pfizer stockholders at stake, to buy the equipment and facilities needed for this novel process of deep-tank fermentation. Pfizer purchases a nearby vacant ice plant, and employees work around the clock to convert it and perfect the complex production process. In just four months, Pfizer is producing five times more penicillin than originally anticipated. Penicillin is a turning point in human history—the first real defense against bacterial infection.

Using deep-tank fermentation, Pfizer is successful in its efforts to mass-produce penicillin and becomes the world's largest producer of the "miracle drug."

Most of the penicillin that goes ashore with Allied forces on D-Day is made by Pfizer. The company's contribution to the war effort is heralded nationwide and earns Pfizer the coveted Army-Navy "E" Award on April 17, 1943.

George A. Anderson becomes Pfizer's chairman of the board. John L. Smith fills the office of President.

Terramycin® (oxytetracycline), a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is the result of the Company's first discovery program, becomes the first pharmaceutical sold in the United States under the Pfizer label. Pfizer begins expansion into overseas markets and the International Division is created.

Terramycin also marks the beginning of the Pfizer Pharmaceutical Sales Force. Upon its approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration on March 15, 1950, eight specially trained Pfizer pharmaceutical salesmen waiting for word at pay phones across the nation move into action to get inventory to wholesalers and to educate physicians about Pfizer's first proprietary pharmaceutical product. These men are the vanguard of a sales and marketing organization that will come to be recognized as the best in the industry.

In a major international expansion, Pfizer operations are established in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, England, Mexico, Panama, and Puerto Rico. John "Jack" Powers, Jr., then assistant to Pfizer President John McKeen, directs his international teams to “study the economy, establish proper contacts with government officials, learn the language, history, and customs, and hire local employees wherever possible."

While other companies keep their international employees on a short leash, Pfizer gives its international people tremendous autonomy, enabling them to make critical decisions immediately, rather than waiting weeks, or even months, for the home office to respond. This formula proves to be remarkably successful in the years ahead.

Pfizer establishes an Agricultural Division dedicated to offering cutting-edge solutions to animal health problems. The division opens its 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana.

After it's acquisition, J.B. Roerig and Company, specialists in nutritional supplements, becomes a division of Pfizer. Roerig remains an integral part of Pfizer's outstanding marketing division.

A fermentation plant opens in England, laying the foundation for Pfizer's research and development operations in Great Britain. Pfizer partners with Japan's Taito to manufacture and distribute antibiotics. Pfizer acquires full ownership of Taito in 1983.

New Pfizer pharmaceutical plants begin production in Mexico, Italy, and Turkey. International personnel increases from 4,300 in 1957 to over 7,000.

The Company signals its increasing commitment to research by consolidating its medical research laboratory operations in Groton, Connecticut.

Pfizer begins a decade of substantial growth and establishes new World Headquarters in midtown Manhattan.

John J. Powers, Jr.,is named president and CEO. John McKeen, whom he succeeds, remains chairman of the board, a position he holds until 1968, when Powers assumes full leadership of the company.

Vibramycin® (doxycycline hyclate), the company's first once-a-day broad-spectrum antibiotic is introduced and quickly becomes a top seller.

Pfizer acquires Mack Illertissen, a prosperous manufacturer of pharmaceutical, chemical, and consumer products oriented to the needs of the German marketplace.The Central Research Division is established, combining pharmaceutical, agricultural, and chemical R&D worldwide. It eventually grows to include research centers on three continents. In an era of unprecedented advances in medical discovery, Pfizer makes a long-term investment in research that will pay off years later.

Pfizer crosses the billion-dollar sales threshold. John Powers, Jr. (center), steps down Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. (right), becomes CEO and Gerald D. Laubauch (left) becomes President.

Pfizer introduces Minipress® (prazosin HCI) in the United States, for the control of high blood pressure.

Feldene® (piroxicam) becomes one of the largest-selling prescription anti-inflammatory medications in the world and, ultimately, Pfizer's first product to reach a total of a billion United States dollars in sales.

Glucotrol® (glipizide), for diabetes, is launched.

Pfizer introduces Unasyn® (ampicillin sulbactam), an injectable antibiotic.

The Agricultural Division is renamed the Animal Health Division.

Pfizer launches Procardia® XL (nifedipine) extended-release tablets, an innovative once-a-day medication for angina and hypertension.

William C. Steere, Jr., is appointed President. A year later, he is also named Chief Executive Officer.

Diflucan® (fluconazole), a powerful antifungal, is launched in the United States and 15 additional countries. Originally approved for systemic fungal infections, in 1994 it receives a new indication in the U.S. for vaginal candidiasis. The single-dose Diflucan® tablet is a welcome alternative to the existing treatments that requires topical applications of cream for a week or more.

William C. Steere, Jr. becomes Chairman of the Board. His goal is to refocus the Company on its core competencies.

Pfizer has a triple rollout of major new medicines: Zoloft® (sertraline hydrochloride) for treatment of depression, Norvasc® (amlodipine besylate) for control of angina and hypertension, and Zithromax® (azithromycin) for respiratory and skin infections.

Pfizer´s Sharing the Care, the industry´s premier drug-donation program, is launched.

The Animal Health Division purchases SmithKline Beecham's animal health business, making Pfizer a world leader in the development and production of pharmaceuticals for livestock and companion animals.

Pfizer increases its presence in the Far East by building a pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, China and expanding throughout growing markets in the Pacific Rim. Cardura® (doxazosin mesylate) is introduced in the United States for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).

Fortune® magazine names Pfizer the world's most admired pharmaceutical company.

Pfizer's roster of outstanding drugs grows with the launch of Viagra® (sildenafil citrate), a breakthrough treatment for erectile dysfunction.

Pfizer invests more than $3.3 billion in research and development.

Pfizer and the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation partner to establish the International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) to help eliminate blinding trachoma. Learn more about Trachoma and the International Trachoma Initiative.

Pfizer celebrates its 150th anniversary as one of the world's premier pharmaceutical companies. Recognized for its success in discovering and developing innovative drugs for human discovery, Forbes® magazine names Pfizer "Company of the Year." Pfizer takes the drug discovery process to a new level of efficiency with the opening of the Discovery Technology Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Utilizing the emerging knowledge of gene families, the Center's mission is to evolve new, more efficient models for discovering drug candidates. These candidates have an increased potential to survive the rigors of drug development. Pfizer investment in research and development exceeds $4 billion for the first time. Learn more about Pfizer's commitment to research.

The Best Get Better—Pfizer and Warner-Lambert merge to form the new Pfizer, creating the world's fastest-growing major pharmaceutical company. Learn more about the Pfizer/Warner-Lambert merger.

Pfizer and the Ministry of Health of South Africa sign a Memorandum of Understanding to establish the Diflucan® Partnership Program. Learn more about the Diflucan® Partnership Program.

Pfizer opens the largest building in the world dedicated to the discovery of new medicines for human and animal health on its Groton, Connecticut research campus.

William C. Steere, Jr. announces his retirement as CEO on January 1, 2001, and steps down as Chairman of the Board in April, following the company's annual meeting. Henry A. McKinnell, Jr., Ph.D. succeeds William C. Steere, Jr. as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.

In June 2001, Hank McKinnell announces a new mission for Pfizer—to become the world's most valued company to patients, customers, colleagues, investors, business partners, and the communities where we work and live. In July, he announces a commitment to fund the building of a regional treatment and training center on the campus of Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda as part of the Academic Alliance for AIDS Care and Prevention.

Pfizer launches Geodon® (ziprasidone hydrochloride), a new antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia.

In a major expansion of its commitment to improving health care for low-income Americans, Pfizer introduces The Pfizer For Living™ Share Card Program. The program provides qualified low-income Medicare beneficiaries with access to up to a 30-day supply of any prescription medicine for a flat rate of $15 per prescription. By April 2004, over half a million seniors enrolled in the program and nearly five million prescriptions were filled.

Pfizer invests an industry leading $5.1 billion in research and development and launches Vfend® (voriconazole), an orally and intravenously administered antifungal indicated for treatment of serious fungal infections.

Pfizer becomes the first U.S. pharmaceutical company and first top-ten company on the New York Stock Exchange to join the U.N. Global Compact, an international network that promotes good corporate citizenship by fostering partnerships between companies, U.N. agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), trade unions and academic institutions.

The Pfizer Foundation announces the launch of a three-year initiative to provide grants to support training and capacity building for HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Twelve organizations receive grants through the International HIV/AIDS Health Literacy Grants Program.

Hank McKinnell, CEO and Chairman of Pfizer, announces the Global Health Fellows program at the World AIDS Conference in Barcelona - a call to action for Pfizer colleagues to volunteer in developing countries for up to six months on HIV/AIDS projects. In 2003, the first eighteen Global Health Fellows are sent into the field.


History & Culture

Navigational Chart of Dry Tortugas from 1874.

History of Dry Tortugas Becoming a National Park

Fort Jefferson National Monument was designated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt under the Antiquities Act on January 4, 1935. (Comprising 47,125 acres (19,071 ha) The monument was expanded in 1983 and re-designated as Dry Tortugas National Park on October 26, 1992 by an act of Congress.

Dry Tortugas was established to protect the island and marine ecosystems of the Dry Tortugas, to preserve Fort Jefferson and submerged cultural resources such as shipwrecks, and to allow for public access in a regulated manner.

Rich Cultural Heritage

The rich cultural heritage of the Dry Tortugas all begins with its location 70 miles west of Key West, Florida. The seven keys (Garden, Loggerhead, Bush, Long, East, Hospital, and Middle) collectively known as the Dry Tortugas, are situated on the edge of the main shipping channel between the Gulf of Mexico, the western Caribbean, and the Atlantic Ocean.

The strategic location of the Dry Tortugas brought a large number of vessels through its surrounding waters as they connect the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Early on, the shipping channel was used among Spanish explorers and merchants traveling along the Gulf Coast.

Sally Port entrance into Fort Jefferson on Garden Key

Fort Jefferson on Garden Key

Fort Jefferson, the largest all-masonry fort in the United States, was built between 1846 and 1875 to protect the nation's gateway to the Gulf of Mexico. Supply and subsidence problems and the Civil War delayed construction. The fort was never completed because of fears that additional bricks and cannon would cause further settling and place more stress on the structure and the cistern system. Distinguishing features include decorative brickwork and 2,000 arches. Time, weather, and water continue to take their toll, necessitating ongoing stabilization and restoration projects.

Fort Jefferson and a Harbor Light

A large military fortress, Fort Jefferson, was constructed in the mid-19 th century as an effort for the United States to protect the extremely lucrative shipping channel. Low and flat, these islands and reefs pose a serious navigation hazard to ships passing through the 75-mile-wide straits between the gulf and the ocean. Consequently, these high risk reefs have created a natural “ship trap” and have been the site of hundreds of shipwrecks.

A lighthouse was constructed at Garden Key in 1825 to warn incoming vessels of the dangerous reefs and later, a bricktower lighthouse was constructed on Loggerhead Key in 1858 for the same purpose. Discover and explore the rich heritage of Dry Tortugas National Park on the history and culture pages.


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