Please identify this WW1 Italian Uniform

Please identify this WW1 Italian Uniform

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Can you tell me anything about the uniform in the picture? I believe the picture was taken around the time of the first WW in Sicily. The insignia on the hat, the hat itself, the boots and sword makes me suspect cavalry. The boy looks young though so I'm thinking military school. If someone could ID time and place, rank division etc. Thank you so much

I think this photo was taken after WW1,

I can say you that this is the uniform model 1926 that was superseeded by the uniform M1934, so the lapse of time is from 1926 since 1934.

This is a cavalry uniform, because the cavalry's fatigue hat, the cavalry pants and the leather leggings, the cap's badge is that of the Cavalry School, or Cavalry remount centres or cavalry's depots, and this further suggests which the photo was taken after WW1 because this specialization didn't received a cap's badge during WW1.

I think he was a private because if he was a NCO he should wore the chevrons on the sleeves, while if he was an officer he should had metal stars on the shoulder's straps.

The headquarters of the Cavalry School was in Pinerolo, near Turin, the collar flashes color was yellow.

I hope I have been helpful to you, A hug from Italy,

Order of St. Maurice & Lazarus, Order of Savoy, Order of the Crown, Roman eagle, St. Louis, Eagle of Este, St. George, St. Januarius, St, Ferdinand, Ordrer of two Sicilies, Order of St. Stephen, Annunziata, Victor Emanuel, al valore, fascist medals, italian medals, Vittorio Emanuele, Umberto I, Africa Orientale campaign, RSI, Italian fascist, medaglie, lunga navigazione, aeronautico, benemeriti, lungo commando, al valore di marina, prima armata, II armata, terza armata, quarta armata, mvsn, onb, voluntarios de guerra.

Great War Medal of Merit for Military Chaplains in very rare, silver grade! (Ita: Medaglia Commemorativa della Guerra 1915-1918 Ai Cappelani Militari). Official medal awarded in recognition of services at the front. Chaplains had very few awards available to them for their efforts in the "trenches". Medal is rarely seen even in the bronze grade. Offered here is a very nice original, complete with an excellent period ribbon. Marked by the manufacturer (SJ). ø 38mm . Medal and ribbon both in very fine condition, light tarnish throughout and a few contact marks. It is a first time we have seen this medal in the silver grade.

Reference: Brambilla,page 591. According to the author, silver grade medals are very rare and were awarded for the chaplains who were elevated to the higher 'levels' in the ecclesiastic society (church). Medal might be of interest to the Vatican-related medal collections. Item # Ita-399 *SOLD*

NEW! Red Cross of Italy Medal of Merit 1st class in gilt. Gorgeous design, very good quality. Complete with combined ribbon of national colours (replacement). Medal of this design (obverse) was originally founded in 1919 and awarded to the prisoners of War. Since, it has gone over many changes and it is still issued today. Measures 32mm in diameter. Shows slight wear. Item # Rdc-141 (69)

Order of the Crown (Ordino della Corona, Grande Ufficiale), Grand Officer's set. Vittorio Emmanuel III period. Most superb and complete set, contained within original luxury type presentation case. Badge crafted in gold, marked to the ribbon retaining loop with French gold import mark for minimum 18K GOLD (standing owl with number '75'). Cross is rimmed in delicate gold frame, knots of the Italian Royal House of Savoi between arms. Centres are well executed, slight chip to white enamel right beneath susension. Original, full length neck ribbon and ties in very fine quality. Cross measures 50mm in width. Breast star is finely cut in silver with light refracting 'diamond' pattern. Badge superimposed (36mm wide) is in gold and of very good quality. Reverse with all original hardware intact, plaque in the centre with details of the manufacturer: 'Domenico Cravanzola, successor to Borani brothers'. Such plaques were used roughly around 1905, making this set of the earlier vintage of the King's (VE III) reign. Breast star measures 75mm in width. Box of issue is in great condition, King's cipher impressed on the lid, double edge trim in gold. Case's covering fature very fine texture. Inside, silk lining under the lid with full stamp of the manufacturer. Finest quality velour lines the bottom part, which is fitted for both of the insignia slightly raised and angled provides for the ultimate display viewing. Ribbon-well keeps it nicely organized. Hinge cover is torn. Locking clasp is of the heavy quality. Box measures 22cm x 10.5cm x 3.5cm. Overall, this set is in excellent condition. Item # Ita-396 *SOLD*

1805 Napoleon Bonaparte Coronation as King of Italy Commemorative Medal. Historically significant medallion featuring Napoleon's profile on obverse and the 'Iron Crown' of Italy to reverse with full inscription. The rarer Denon/Andrieu type. Darkened copper (or bronze with high copper content).Very good condition considering its age.

Reverse description: ' NAPOLEON ROI D'ITALIE' in exergue, COURONNE . A . MILAN . LE . XXIII . MAI . M.DCCCV . DENON . Dt . * JALEY . Ft .

40.2mm dia. Ref. Brambilla p.70 (type "A"), also in: Bramsen, 418. Item # Mds-31 *SOLD*

Italian Royal Navy ship 'Trieste' commemorative medal. 'Trieste' was a 'trento' class heavy cruiser launched in 1926. It was a flagship of the 3rd Division. Ship took part in the Battle of Cape Spartivento in 1940. Later on it was torpedoed by HMS Utmost (British ship) and finally sunk in 1943 after being bombed by American B-24's in Sardinia. Medal in bronze by 'Ferrea Genova'. Towers and symbols of the city of Trieste on reverse. 23.5 mm in diameter, ribbon appars to be original. Very nice medal. Item # Ita-315 *SOLD*

Unknown OND (Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro) medal. Nicely designed, bronze. Complete with ribbon (appears of age). Reverse with couple of inscriptions: 'SAGA' and 'A GRETTA'. OND became Italian's Fascist Party auxillary organization after 1927. ø 24mm. Item # Ita-314 (52)

Order of the Crown of Italy. Very good quality ribbon bar in bronze with enamels. Light cracking to right side (red) but not chipped. 20.5mm wide. Button hole fastener. Item # Ita-257 (20)

Libya Medal (1912-1913), unusual variation by unknown maker (the mark is not identified in our sources). 1913 year bar, original ribbon in very worn condition. Silvered bronze, spotty darkening. Would make great addition to your collection. 32.8 mm in diameter. Item # Ita-226 (108)

Kingdom of Two Sicilies - 1816 Military Medal (It. Medaglia Militare "Costante Attaccamento"). Established by King Ferdinand IV (also known as Ferdinand I, and Ferdinand III of Sicily). The history of the region is very complicated. At various times, the French, Austrians, British and others took an interest in the area. In 1796 Napoleon's army invaded Italian Peninsula. By 1798 the whole of Italy was under the French, with the exception of the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. A short-lived Parthenopean Republic (23 January 1799 to 13 June 1799) was established (by Napoleon) in the territory of the Kingdom of Naples. King Ferdinand was restored to the throne in 1805 just to be deposed (by Napoleon) and replaced by Joseph Bonaparte on 30 March, 1806. King Ferdinand was restored after an Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino (3 March, 1815) over the rival monarch, King Joachim I Murat (King of the Two Sicilies from 1808 to 1815). Ferdinand's reign over Joachim Murat was in part made possible due to British protection (chiefly in form of a Naval presence). On 8 March, 1816 he merged the thrones of Sicily and Naples to the throne of the Two Sicilies. Kingdom of Two Sicilies lasted until 1861 (during unification of Italy).

Believed to have been awarded to officers and other ranks as medal of honour/loyalty to the King during years of "French Rule" of Sicily. According to Pietro Colletta (Storia del reame di Napoli dal 1734 sino al 1825), these medals were accepted with considerable esteem and worn with great pride by all who received them (Colletta mentions that minimum requirement was 10 years of unblemished and loyal military service to the King during these difficult times of fighting the French).
Medals were (apparently) made in Naples (Capitol of the Kingdom). Purportedly, some British Naval officers were also awarded these medals. There were a few variants of this award (gold, bronze gilt, bronze and with green enamel/lacquer) all are considered very rare (gold crosses are of utmost scarcity). Offered here is a wonderful example in bronze gilt with green lacquered arms. Old style gilding is apparent (see detailed image) through thickness of the chip in the plating on one of the arms. Proper, 3 part (body of the cross with 2 center medallions attached) construction. Original (sealed) rings and (remarkable!) original ribbon. Details are very good, Bourbon lilies between arms still showing nice detail. Overall, award shows minimal wear (considering its age). Superb example of this scarce award. 27.9mm wide x 28.4mm. Royal Red ribbon is 32mm wide, one pull to reverse and numerous small pin-holes (probably due to it being displayed). Planchet is approximately 2.5mm thick. Center medallions are 18mm in diameter. Fantastic piece for the Napoleonic Wars/Italian peninsula/British Naval medal collector. References: Brambilla - page 127 H. von Heyden # 315-316. Item # Ita-268 (*SOLD*)

1941 Italian Police in Colonial Africa 16 Years long service cross (Croci d'anzianita a di servizio Polizia Africana Italiana) without crown. A most superb example of this rare award. Silvered bronze with enamels. Red in bottom part of Savoyan shield is missing but not detractive. Blue enamel is perfect. Ribbon is a replacement. Excellent design, unmarked (proper for these awards). There were 3 classes: 'gold' for 25 years 'silver' for 16 years and 'bronze' for 10 years. All are of exceptional rarity. Copies do exist but lack details of originals. Slight wear to silver plating. Cross is 40mm wide, center disc 19mm dia. Reference: Brambilla page 776. Item # Ita-312 *SOLD*

Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, Grand Officer's set - King Umberto period. This awesome and complete set of the neck badge, breast star and fitted presentation case would be difficult to find in better condition. It is rare to encounter cased examples from Umberto's period (1878-1900). Finest quality, crafted by the renowned firm of Domenico Cravanzola in gold, silver and enamels. Neck badge is made entirely in 24K gold and enamels while breast star has silver body with gold badge superimposed (via 4 tube-style rivets). Complete with original full length neck ribbon and ties. All hardware intact. Box of issue is very elegant, textured and with highly decorative edge trim King's (Umberto) royal cypher is impressed and finished in gold ink. Push button opener fully functional. Interior is lined with luxurious purple velour, firm's stamp in gold under the lid. Opening limiters are intact (purple ribbons). Few scuff marks to the lid but not detractive. Such boxes are very rare indeed. Judging by the markings on the box and the breast star, this set would date from the earlier period of Umberto's reign - it would be safe to state early 1880's. Neck badge is very well executed, bulbs on the tips of the arms are very large and perfectly round. It measures 54mm in width, crown is quite robust and measures 34mm in width. Breast star measuring 79mm tip to tip, cross in the centre is 47mm wide. Both insignia are in near mint condition! There is no damage to enamels whatsoever (aside from very minor spider lines on the star). We don't think it would be possible to find better set, it will certainly please even the most demanding collector. Item # Ita-395 *SOLD*

1920-1921 Upper Silesian Plebiscite medal issued to members of the Italian contingent , who were brought in as the 'Peacekeepers' by The Interallied Commission. There were the British, French and the Italian units present. French and the Italians issued such commemorative medals (not the British). Silesian uprising created grounds for the action by the 'Peacekeepers' - who policed the talks and negotiations between the Poles and the German side.

Medal in bronze, 28.2mm in diameter. Fabulous design, obverse featuring the industrial and religious nature of the Silesian region along with the eagle symbol and the dates of 1920 and 1921. Peace dove flying above. Reverse inscribed: "CONTINGENTE ITALIANO DELLE TRUPPE INTERALLEATE", listing all Italian units present:

- 458° Plotone Carabinieri Reali
- 135° Reggimento Fanteria
- 32° Reggimento fanteria Speciale
- Gruppo Speciale Artiglieria 8° Camp.
- Plot. Avt. 3° Batt. Genio Telegr.
- 1° Drappello Automobilistico
- Ospedaletto da Campo 40
- 45 Sezione Sussistenza

Overall, very interesting medal. Complete with an old (lightly soiled) ribbon in the Silesian colours. It is not entirely clear if these were indeed issued with the ribbon, likely not. However, item offered here came from the family of a participant (he was in the 135 Infantry Regiment) who was said to wear it on his medal bar (WW1 commemorative and the long service medal). Medal is guaranteed original, period issue. Note there are copies on the market, those are said to have couple of particular minor differences from the original. Also, silvered medals for the officers are in existance but are very rare. Item # Ita-379 *SOLD*

Crown of Italy Order. Cased Officer in gold. Earlier vintage, Umberto's reign (1878 - 1900). D. Cravanzola's address would indicate 1880-1890's vintage. Excellent piece with DELUXE quality work, knots of Savoi are especially thick (much thicker then usual production). Case is also of deluxe quality. Item # Ita-240 *SOLD*

Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus, Knight in Gold. This is rather unusual example with very pronounced bulb tips - considerably larger than the normally produced examples. Cross shows typical mid-section cracking and flakes to the white enamels. Green enamels intact. Good thickness to the gold frame and very fine ball ends on the tips of green enamelled diagonal sections. Excellent original ribbon shows typical aspects of the production in the mid-late 1800s. It is likely of the late VE II or an early Umberto I reign period (likely circa 1870-1890). Cross measures 41mm in width. Measured in the width of the bulb tips it is about 10mm! Very unique cross, would cerainly please advanced collector of this interesting order.

Order of Merit, silver breast star by Stefano Johnson. Very good - older quality star. Near perfect condition. Nicely hallmarked to badge (eagle's wings) and body of star (reverse). 72mm wide. The same star was used for both Grad Cross and Grand Officer's class. Complete with original pin-catch assembly. Item # Ita-367 *SOLD*

Scottish regiments

Scotland has a long and unique military heritage that stretches way beyond World War I when the traditions of tartan, kilt and bagpipes became intrinsic emblems of Scottish identity.

Local territorial forces played significant roles in community life, particularly in rural areas, and this shared heritage and national pride led to an estimated 688,000 Scotsmen enlisting during the war. The sacrifice of Scots who served with the British Army during World War I cannot be overstated, with almost a quarter losing their lives.

Uncover the fascinating history and sacrifices made by Scotland's proud infantry regiments, including their traditions, origins and where you can find out more today.

Black Watch

The Black Watch is Scotland's elite military regiment.

Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders

This infantry regiment was the original 'Thin Red Line'.

Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)

The Cameronians were the only regiment of rifles in the Scottish infantry.

Highland Light Infantry

The Highland Light Infantry were affectionately known as the HLI.

Gordon Highlanders

Find out more about the courageous Gordon Highlanders.

Royal Scots

The Royal Scots were the British Army's most senior infantry regiment.

Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders

The Queen's Own part of this regiment's title was bestowed by Queen Victoria in recognition of its bravery.

Historical Leatherwear - WW2 Leather Jackets, Tunics, Gloves and Trousers

Finally we have produced the US A2 pilots jacket, The jacket is in a very dark brown shade and is made of soft supple goat skin, The jacket is fully lined in brown cotton and has two side opening pockets as well as two pouch pockets with poppers.

British 1920's Motor Racing Leather Jacket

This is our take on a classic British Motor racing leather. Made from brown buffalo leather and fully lined with checkered blanket wool.

Czech Sniper leather coat

Czech Sniper leather coathip length leather coatbrown buffalo hide10 double breasted buttons2 lower skirt pockets lined with fur (faux)removable leather and faux fur collarwaist belt hip length.

Czech Sniper leather coat - BLACK

Czech Sniper leather coathip length leather coatblack buffalo hide10 double breasted buttons2 lower skirt pockets lined with fur (faux)removable leather and faux fur collarwaist belt hip length.

German Officers Horsehide Great Coat - WW2 German Leather Coat

This leather jacket is made from heavy duty leather and lined with cotton. As a full length greatcoat it reaches 7/8 in length, finishing just above the ankle. The coat was coveted by all service branches.Weight 4.5 kg approxCoat features2 Rows of 6 buttons2 Slanted slash pocketsFrench cuffsBeltInte.

German SENIOR Officers Great Coat SUEDE - WW2 German Leather Coat

This leather jacket is made from smooth suede and lined fullyAs a full length greatcoat it reaches 7/8 in length.Weight 4.5 kg approxCoat featuresheavy duty SUEDE- BROWN2 Rows of 3 buttons - GOLD PEBBLED2 Slanted slash pocketsBelt Internal pocket.

German SENIOR Officers Horsehide Great Coat - WW2 German Leather Coat

This leather jacket is made from heavy duty leather and lined fullyAs a full length greatcoat it reaches 7/8 in length, finishing just above the ankle. The coat was coveted by all service branches.Weight 4.5 kg approxCoat featuresheavy duty leatherheavyhea2 Rows of 6 buttons - GOLD PEBBLED2 Slanted .

German SENIOR Officers Horsehide Great Coat BROWN - WW2 German Leather Coat

This leather jacket is made from heavy duty leather and lined fullyAs a full length greatcoat it reaches 7/8 in length, finishing just above the ankle. The coat was coveted by all service branches.Weight 4.5 kg approxCoat featuresheavy duty leather - BROWNheavyhea2 Rows of 6 buttons - GOLD PEBBLED2 .

German SENIOR Officers leather Great Coat BROWN - WW2 German Leather Coat

This leather jacket is made from heavy duty leather and lined fullyAs a full length greatcoat it reaches 7/8 in length, finishing just above the ankle. The coat was coveted by all service branches.Weight 4.5 kg approxCoat featuresheavy duty leather - brownheavyhea2 Rows of 6 buttons - GOLD PEBBLED2 .

Hans Joachim Marseille Leather Jacket

Our version of the famous flying jacket worn by WW2 German fighter pilot Hans Joachim Marseille.Made from soft buffalo hide, fully lined, double breasted, 2 lower and 1 breast pocket, plus one on the inside.

Kriegsmarine Jacket U-Boat Crew Leather Jacket

WW2 German Kriegsmarine Jacket U-Boat Crew Leather JacketThis leather jacket was for engine room personnel and was single breasted garment. This style of jacket has been around since the Kaisers daysmade from soft buffalo hide leatherfully lined1 inside pocket1 outer chest pocket2 outer thigh p.

Leather Hussars Jacket with Black Frogging

Leather Hussars Jacket with Black FroggingMade from heavyweight high quality leatherBlack froggingWeighs 2.9 kgFully linedNote - this item is made to order and will take approx 6 weeks.

Leather Hussars Jacket with Gold Frogging

Leather Hussars Jacket with Gold FroggingMade from heavyweight high quality leatherFake white furGold bullion wire froggingWeighs 2.9 kgFully linednote - this item is made to order and will take approx 6 weeks.

Leather Hussars Jacket with Grey Frogging

Leather Hussars Jacket with Grey FroggingMade from heavyweight high quality leatherGrey FroggingWeighs 2.9 kgFully linednote - this item is made to order and will take approx 6 weeks.

Luftwaffe pilots jacket

World War Two German Luftwaffe - made from soft buffalo hide, lined with red rayon, one inside pocketThe short leather jacket was extremely sought after by the Luftwaffe fighter aces. This leather jacket is similar to the one worn by Michael Caine in the Eagle Has Landed but in brown.

Exceptional WW1 Canadian Expeditionary Forces uniform group belonging to Corporal George Gibson (114575)

Exceptional WW1 Canadian Expeditionary Forces uniform group belonging to Corporal George Gibson (114575). Gibson signed up in Saskatoon in February 1915, and served overseas where he was wounded on August 16th 1916. Gibson survived and settled in Saskatchewan after the war, working as a truck driver and at one point was Mayor and fire chief of the town of Wiseton. The group includes a 44th C.E.F tunic and officers cap with matching cap badges/collars, and a Canadian Light Horse tunic with 19th Alberta Dragoons insignia, buttons and cloth regimental badge. The C.L.H. tunic comes with pants and puttees, and has the War Department mark on the interior of the jacket. Interestingly, the 44th C.E.F tunic belonged to one of George’s many brothers- Charles, Bob, Alex, Peter, James and John. Several of his brothers died during World War One, and the tunic is unnamed. Canadian WW1 uniform groups are seldom found complete with history relating to them, making this a very special group.

Battle of Amiens

On August 8, 1918, the Allies launch a series of offensive operations against German positions on the Western Front during World War I with a punishing attack at Amiens, on the Somme River in northwestern France.

After heavy casualties incurred during their ambitious spring 1918 offensive, the bulk of the German army was exhausted, and its morale was rapidly disintegrating amid a lack of supplies and the spreading influenza epidemic. Some of its commanders believed that the tide was turning irrevocably in favor of Germany’s enemies as one of them, Crown Prince Rupprecht, wrote on July 20, “We stand at the turning point of the war: what I expected first for the autumn, the necessity to go over to the defensive, is already on us, and in addition all the gains which we made in the spring—such as they were—have been lost again.” Still, Erich Ludendorff, the German commander in chief, refused to accept this reality and rejected the advice of his senior commanders to pull back or begin negotiations.

Meanwhile, the Allies prepared for the war to stretch into 1919, not realizing victory was possible so soon. Thus, at a conference of national army commanders on July 24, Allied generalissimo Ferdinand Foch rejected the idea of a single decisive blow against the Germans, favoring instead a series of limited attacks in quick succession aimed at liberating the vital railway lines around Paris and diverting the attention and resources of the enemy rapidly from one spot to another. According to Foch: “These movements should be exacted with such rapidity as to inflict upon the enemy a succession of blows….These actions must succeed each other at brief intervals, so as to embarrass the enemy in the utilization of his reserves and not allow him sufficient time to fill up his units.” The national commanders—John J. Pershing of the United States, Philippe Petain of France and Sir Douglas Haig of Britain—willingly went along with this strategy, which effectively allowed each army to act as its own entity, striking smaller individual blows to the Germans instead of joining together in one massive coordinated attack.

Haig’s part of the plan called for a limited offensive at Amiens, on the Somme River, aimed at counteracting a German victory there the previous March and capturing the Amiens railway line stretching between Mericourt and Hangest. The British attack, begun on the morning August 8, 1918, was led by the British 4th Army under the command of Sir Henry Rawlinson. The German defensive positions at Amiens were guarded by 20,000 men they were outnumbered six to one by advancing Allied forces. The British—well assisted by Australian and Canadian divisions𠅎mployed some 400 tanks in the attack, along with over 2,000 artillery pieces and 800 aircraft.

By the end of August 8𠅍ubbed “the black day of the German army” by Ludendorff—the Allies had penetrated German lines around the Somme with a gap some 15 miles long. Of the 27, 000 German casualties on August 8, an unprecedented proportion�,000—had surrendered to the enemy. Though the Allies at Amiens failed to continue their impressive success in the days following August 8, the damage had been done. “We have reached the limits of our capacity,” Kaiser Wilhelm II told Ludendorff on that 𠇋lack day.” “The war must be ended.” The kaiser agreed, however, that this end could not come until Germany was again making progress on the battlefield, so that there would be at least some bargaining room. Even faced with the momentum of the Allied summer offensive—later known as the Hundred Days Offensive—the front lines of the German army continued to fight on into the final months of the war, despite being plagued by disorder and desertion within its troops and rebellion on the home front.

Please identify this WW1 Italian Uniform - History

The following is a very general guide to uniforms worn for various purposes by the Canadian Militia/Canadian Army/Canadian Armed Forces from 1900 to 1999. Various garments were worn for various purposes with differing descriptions - i.e. the Service Dress Jacket, the Battle Dress Blouse, the Combat Shirt. Some definitions are in order.

Parade and Walking Out - this refers to the uniform generally worn for parades or walking out dress (i.e. leave or "going out on the town.") Not included in the discussion here are Ceremonial Dress, Patrol Dress, or Mess Dress. These were never issued to a majority of Canadian soldiers, be it peacetime or war, and in fact the latter two categories were private purchase only.

Field - the uniform intended to be worn for field employment

Work - the uniform intended to be worn while in garrison and engaged in office work, classes, maintenance duties, etc.

Summer - special purpose summer uniforms intended for general purpose wear, including any of the above three categories

Bear in mind that there were also many patterns of overalls, coveralls, AFV suits, and tailor-purpose garments for tradesmen and specialists like tank crews, snipers, motorcyclists, etc. This gear properly falls under a different category and will be discussed elsewhere. The following garments were general issue.

Period Parade &
Walking Out
Field Work Summer
1903 Service Dress Service Dress Service Dress Khaki Drill
1914-1918 Service Dress Service Dress Service Dress Khaki Drill
1918-1939 Service Dress Service Dress Service Dress Khaki Drill
1939-1945 Service Dress
or Battle Dress
Battle Dress or Khaki Drill (summer)
Battle Dress Battle Dress Khaki Drill
1946-1967 Battle Dress (winter)
Tropical Worsted (summer)
Black Coveralls Black Coveralls Bush Dress
1967-1985 CF Green Combat shirt Work Dress Canadian Forces Tropical Uniform began to be issued in the 1970s.
1985-1999 DEU Combat shirt Garrison Dress Canadian Forces Tropical Uniform

First World War

Adopted in 1903, the Canadian patterned Service Dress Jacket was intended as both a dress and field jacket, replacing the brightly coloured full dress uniforms previously worn (such as the scarlet tunics worn by infantry, rifle green worn by Rifle regiments, and dark blue worn by the Artillery).

Canadian Militiamen tended to severely tailor these jackets, despite orders not to. As an item of field dress, they were supposed to be cut loose so as to accommodate the wearing of a sweater underneath many commanders and men preferred to tailor the tunic to look sharper on parade.

It was this jacket in which Canadian soldiers were dressed when they went to war in 1914. According to Khaki by Clive Law, a variant on this jacket also featured "rifle patches" as found on the standard British Service Dress.

Collar: Stand up collar secured by hooks and eyes

Shoulder straps: some jackets had coloured shoulder straps, either detachable or sewn-in (these will be dealt with on a separate page), most had sewn in straps.

Front Closure: 7 button front

Pockets: Two breast pockets, box pleated, with scalloped flaps secured by buttons. Two hip pockets with flaps.

Cuffs: Gauntlet style cuffs

Scottish/Highland Pattern: Officially, these jackets were not supposed to be cutaway to accommodate the sporran, yet throughout the way they were continually altered in this manner.

Service Dress - First Contingent 1914

Other Ranks of the First Contingent of the Canadian Expeditionary Force to Europe in 1914 wore the Canadian Service Dress uniform designed and issued in 1903. It consisted of a close fitting jacket, trousers, puttees, and ankle boots. The jacket had a stand up collar, and was fitted with coloured shoulder straps attached, designating the branch of service of the wearer. Detachable coloured shoulder straps had been in use before the war, although the colour scheme of straps worn by the First Contingent men was different than the prewar scheme. The coloured straps were phased out over the first year of the war, being replaced with plain straps. For those that retained them, the coloured straps remained a prized sign that the wearer had belonged to the First Contingent.

Blue Infantry
Green Rifle Regiment
Red Artillery
Signals French Grey
Canadian Army Veterinary Corps
Canadian Army Medical Corps Maroon
Canadian Army Service Corps White with blue pipings
Engineers Blue with yellow pipings, also red oval tab below shoulder with "CE" in blue

Jacket and photo from the collection of Ed Storey

The inadequacies of Canadian uniforms, equipment and weapons made themselves felt not long after arrival in England in late 1914. Everything from wagons to rifles to boots to entrenching tools were inferior to British made items and were eventually replaced. Many Canadians tailored their British jackets so that the collar closed in the front, emulating the standup style of collar of the Canadian jacket. The Canadian made boots were also replaced very soon after arrival in England with black ankle-high "Ammunition" boots.

In the field in France, the CEF found that Canadian pattern jackets (especially those heavily tailored as mentioned above) were too tightly fitting to be as useful for field service as the Canadian jacket. Eventually, the CEF began to issue jacket of British pattern. In addition to the differing features outlined below, the British jacket had "rifle patches" on the shoulders (an extra layer of wool which resisted the wearing out of the shoulders due to field chafing from the field equipment).

Collar: Stand and fall collar. This was often tailored by Canadians, however, by the addition of hooks and eyes that closed the front of the collar, giving the appearance of a Canadian stand up collar.

Front Closure: 5 button front

Pockets: Two breast pockets, box pleated, with straight cut flaps secured by buttons. Two hip pockets with flaps and buttons.

Cuffs: Plain cuffs.

Scottish/Highland Pattern: These jackets were also often seen cut away to accommodate a sporran.

Above , examples of the British pattern Service Dress Jacket worn "cut away." At left a soldier of the 92nd Battalion. The collar of this tunic has been left in British configuration. At right, a tunic with blue shoulder straps added. Note how the front skirts are rounded off to accommodate the sporran.

Jacket and photo from the collection of Ed Storey

The Canadian Militia began the war wearing the Service Dress cap, which was characterized by a stiff crown and peak, with a leather chinstrap retained by metal buttons.

Service Dress (Kitchener Pattern)

During the war, an economy pattern of the Service Dress Jacket was introduced by the British, which was also issued to Canadians. (Today referred to as "Kitchener Pattern" after the British General who raised what was then called "Kitchener's Army." This version differed from the norm by the deletion of box pleats from the breast pockets, as well as the rifle pads, in a move to conserve uniform cloth.

Sergeant, at right, decorated with the Military Medal, wears a "Kitchener pattern" Service Dress Jacket.
Note also the whistle lanyard and other uniform details

Second World War

Service Dress

At the start of the Second World War, many different styles of Service Dress were being worn, and though Battle Dress was officially intended to replace SD, it was worn until sufficient stocks of Battle Dress could be procured. By 1941, Service Dress was only issued to small numbers of men, mostly musicians. Some units may have kept small stocks on hand for special parades or to issue as a walking out uniform. Overseas troops issued with Service Dress seem to have worn the British pattern (with rifle pads as shown above) while in Canada, troops began to be issued a special Canadian pattern "Walking Out Uniform) as shown below.

Summer Dress

The pattern of Khaki Drill Jacket worn by Canadians between the wars, and in the beginning years of the Second World War, was very basic in design.

Front Closure: 5 button front

Pockets: Two breast pockets, box pleated, with straight cut flaps secured by buttons.

Cuffs: Plain cuffs.

A Canadian pattern of Khaki Drill Jacket was introduced during the war it was a departure from earlier uniforms in that it had an open collar design, allowing the wear of a shirt and tie underneath - a distinction previously not permitted for Other Ranks. This Canadian Pattern KD was not worn in Europe Canadian troops serving in the Mediterranean wore British pattern KD clothing, and those in Britain and the Continent did not wear Khaki Drill at all.

Collar: Open collar

Front Closure: 4 button front. A cloth waist belt was also worn with this uniform in the absence of other types of belts (i.e. if for a parade 1937 pattern web belts with bayonets and frogs were worn, the cloth belt would not be worn.) Some of these jackets had cloth belts permanently attached. There are also variations such as cloth belt loops, or eyelets to allow the wearing of belt hooks.

Shoulder straps: Some variants seem to have been made with shoulder straps, some without.

Pockets: Two breast pockets, box pleated, with scalloped flaps secured by buttons, two flapped hip pockets.

Cuffs: Plain cuffs.

Scottish/Highland Pattern: These jackets were intended to be worn with either khaki drill trousers, or shorts, and were probably not often cutaway to accommodate the kilt.

Jackets and photos from the collection of Ed Storey

A Canadian pattern of Service Dress Jacket, often referred to in regulations as a "Walking Out" uniform, was introduced during the war also. Its style matched that of the Canadian Pattern Khaki Drill uniform that was introduced at about the same time. Again, troops in Europe were not issued with this uniform though there is much evidence of it being used in Canada.

Walking Out uniform. At left: A jacket cut to accommodate the sporran. At right: With the buttons and insignia of the Regina Rifle Regiment, this jacket looks very much like a US Marine Corps uniform. Note the matching cloth belt, service chevrons, and GS badge. This jacket has patch pockets on the skirt. Artifact at right courtesy of Victor Taboika.

Battle Dress Blouse

By September 1939, Canada had been in the process of approving the new British Battle Dress uniform for wear by Canadians. The blouse was a departure from the uniforms worn by most of the world's armies cut short at the waist, the garment was designed with practicality in mind. By 1941, Battle Dress had been issued to the entire overseas army, and it was to be the uniform of the army in Canada as well, except when replaced by summer summer dress. Battle Dress, in its final (1949) form, would be a standard garment of issue until the 1970s.

Collar: Closed fall collar

Front Closure: 4 or 5 button fly front. A cloth waist belt was also sewn in at the waist, and secured closed by a buckle sewn to the lower right waistband.

Pockets: Two breast pockets, box pleated, with scalloped flaps secured by buttons.

Cuffs: Vented cuffs, secured by hidden buttons.

The wear of Battle Dress was highly modified during the war a detailed listing of Battle Dress variants and regulations regarding the wear of Battle Dress will be found in the webmaster's upcoming book Dressed to Kill, to be released by Service Publications.

1945 to Unification

After the Second World War, several variations to the Battle Dress blouse were made, and by the Korean War the 1949 Pattern became the standard. This pattern remained on inventory, unchanged, until replaced for field dress with the Combat Uniform. It was retained as a dress uniform, especially in Reserve units, until replaced by the Canadian Forces uniform (CF Green) during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

The most visible change to the 1949 Pattern blouse was the addition of an open collar. Rank insignia for Other Ranks was reduced in size on the postwar BD, and the coat of arms for Warrant Officer Class I was changed from the British Royal Arms to the coat of arms of Canada.

For dress wear, in place of the Service Dress Jacket, a new Tropical Worsted jacket (also called a T-dub) was introduced, using lightweight material that during WW II had been used only in private purchase officers' SD Jackets. The styling was very close to the Khaki Drill jacket.

For summer dress, the Khaki Drill uniform was replaced by a green denim uniform called Bush Dress. Similar to the Khaki Drill jacket, Bush Dress had several significant differences.

Front Closure: 5 button front. A cloth waist belt was also worn with this uniform in the absence of other types of belts (i.e. if for a parade belt with bayonet and frog was worn, the cloth belt would not be worn).

Pockets: Two breast pockets, box pleated, with scalloped flaps secured by buttons, two flapped bellows-type hip pockets.

Cuffs: Vented cuffs secured by a visible button

During the Second World War, khaki overalls had been used by soldiers in training, both in garrison and in the field, both overtop of wool or denim battledress, or in lieu of BD.

After the Second World War coveralls came to be issued in black and were used extensively for field training in lieu of bush or battle dress.

After unification, they were continued to be issued in rifle green cloth matching that of the CF work dress, as well as in a neutral grey coloured cloth.

Combat Dress

During the 1960s, lightweight nylon-based Combat Dress began to replace the denim Bush Dress it remained on inventory into the 21st Century. It was a monochrome olive coloured combat uniform. A tan variant was created for desert use, and worn on operations in Somalia in the 1990s by the Airborne Regiment battle group deployed there. The shirt had angled pockets to accommodate the magazine of the FN C1 assault rifle cargo pockets were attached to the outer leg of the trousers. A field jacket similar in design to the combat shirt was produced in heavy denim, with a detachable quilted liner.

After Unification of the three services in 1968, a single uniform for working was created. Work Dress actually had a variety of components the standard rifle green trousers remained common to all uniforms, worn either with parade boots or combat boots. A linden (light) green shirt or lagoon (sea) green shirt could be worn with either a rifle green sweater or two-pocket, waist-length "Ike" style blouse, usually derided as a "bus-driver's jacket."

The "CF Green" was worn for ceremonial parades, office duties, and walking out. Similar to the older "T-Dub", it consisted of a rifle green jacket and trousers, with skirts also made for female personnel.

The Conservative government under Brian Mulroney instituted a segregation of the three services with respect to uniforms in the late 1980s, and a return to distinctive uniforms. Garrison Dress replaced Work Dress, with a tan shirt and camouflage jacket becoming the standard, with high-topped smooth leather boots worn and expected to be highly polished. The CF Greens were replaced by two uniforms, a Distinctive Environment Uniform (DEU), in dark green for winter, and tan for summer. Outwardly, the uniforms were similar to the CF Green, though they were cut differently, lacked shoulder padding, and had epaulettes added, which brought back the traditional metal shoulder titles into wear throughout the land forces.

Please identify this WW1 Italian Uniform - History

Monte Grappa
Italy's Thermopylae At the Great War Society's Legends & Traditions Site

The Allies Post-Caporetto Support of Italy Excerpted From Francis Mackay's Touring the Italian Front

Caporetto: A Fresh Look Contributed by John Farina

Vera Brittain's Pilgrimage Excerpted From Francis Mackay's Asiago

Avalanche ! Mountaineer Richard Galli Discusses the Unique Killer of the Italian Front

Caporetto Odyssey Co-Editor Leo Benedetti's Story of His Father Virgilio Before, During and After the Great Battle

Doughboys in Italy ! The American Presence on the Italian Front

Faces of War Photos of Individuals Who Served on the Italian Front: Notables and Unknowns Privates and Generals Heroes and Villains

Why Study the Italian Front? The Editors' Intentions and Philosophy

Contributions Needed

The Great War Society is currently gathering material for La Grande Guerra . If you have any material in the following categories you would like to contribute, please contact us at one of the email addresses at the bottom of the page.

Articles, brief summaries or interesting facts about military operations, tactics, mountain and river military engineering methods, weapons, equipment and uniforms particular to the Italian Front.

First hand accounts by soldiers of all forces: Austro-Hungarian [all nationalities], German, Italian, British, French and American.

Information and insights on Italy's decision to enter the war on the Allied side.

Impact of Italian Front operations on the overall military situation from 1915 to the Armistice.

The immediate results of the war's conclusion and long-term effect on the principal participants.

Images from the period, of individual participants [then and later], and the battlefields today.

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Trade of Italy

Italy has a great trading tradition. Jutting out deeply into the Mediterranean Sea, the country occupies a position of strategic importance, enhancing its trading potential not only with eastern Europe but also with North Africa and the Middle East. Italy has historically maintained active relations with eastern European countries, Libya, and the Palestinian peoples. These links have been preserved even at times of great political tension, such as during the Cold War and the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Membership in the EC from 1957 increased Italy’s potential for trade still further, giving rise to rapid economic growth. However, from that time, the economy was subject to an ever-widening trade deficit. Between 1985 and 1989 the only trading partner with which Italy did not run a deficit was the United States. Italy began showing a positive balance again in the mid-1990s. Trade with other EU members accounts for more than half of Italy’s transactions. Other major trading partners include the United States, Russia, China, and members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Italy’s trading strength was traditionally built on textiles, food products, and manufactured goods. During the second half of the 20th century, however, products from Italy’s burgeoning metal and engineering sector, including automobiles, rose to account for a majority share of the total exports, which it still retains they are followed by the textiles, clothing, and leather goods sector. The most avid customers of Italian exports are Germany, France, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Spain.

Italy’s main imports are metal and engineering products, principally from Germany, France, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Chemicals, vehicle, and mineral imports are also important commodities. Italy is a major importer of energy, with much of its oil supply coming from North Africa and the Middle East.

Long before online quizzes and Myers-Briggs, Robert Woodworth’s “Psychoneurotic Inventory” tried to assess recruits’ susceptibility to shell shock

In January 1915, less than a year into the First World War, Charles Myers, a doctor with the Royal Army Medical Corps, documented the history of a soldier known as Case 3. Case 3 was a 23-year-old private who had survived a shell explosion and woken up, memory cloudy, in a cellar and then in a hospital. “A healthy-looking man, well-nourished, but obviously in an extremely nervous condition. He complains that the slightest noise makes him start,” wrote Myers in a dispatch to the medical journal The Lancet. The physician termed the affliction exhibited by this private and two other soldiers “shell shock.”

Shell shock ultimately sent 15 percent of British soldiers home. Their symptoms included uncontrollable weeping, amnesia, tics, paralysis, nightmares, insomnia, heart palpitations, anxiety attacks, muteness—the list ticked on. Across the Atlantic, the National Committee for Mental Hygiene took note. Its medical director, psychiatrist Thomas Salmon, traveled overseas to study the psychological toll of the war and report back on what preparations the U.S., if it entered the ever-swelling conflict, should make to care for soldiers suffering from shell shock, or what he termed “war neuroses.” Today, we recognize their then-mysterious condition as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), an ongoing psychological response to trauma that the Department of Veterans Affairs says affects between 10 and 20 percent of veterans of the United States’ War of Terror.

“The most important recommendation to be made,” Salmon wrote, “is that of rigidly excluding insane, feebleminded, psychopathic and neuropathic individuals from the forces which are to be sent to France and exposed to the terrific stress of modern war.” While his suggestion to identify and exclude soldiers who might be more vulnerable to “war neuroses” seems today like an archaic approach to mental health, it resulted in a lasting contribution to popular psychology: the first personality test.

Patients in the "neuro-psychological ward" of the base hospital at Camp Sherman in Ohio in 1918. (National Archives)

When Myers named shell shock, it had a fairly short paper trail. During the German unification wars a half-century earlier, a psychiatrist had noted similar symptoms in combat veterans. But World War I introduced a different kind of warfare—deadlier and more mechanized, with machine guns and poison gas. “Never in the history of mankind have the stresses and strains laid upon the body and mind been so great or so numerous as in the present war,” lamented British-Australian anthropologist Elliott Smith.

Initially, the name “shell shock” was meant literally—psychologists thought the concussive impact of bombshells left a mental aftereffect. But when even non-combat troops started exhibiting the same behavioral symptoms, that explanation lost sway. One school of thought, says Greg Eghigian, a history professor at Pennsylvania State University who’s studied the development of psychiatry, suspected shell shock sufferers of “maligning,” or faking their symptoms to get a quick exit from the military. Others believed the prevalence of shell shock could be attributed to soldiers being of “inferior neurological stock,” Eghigian says. The opinion of psychologists in this camp, he says, was: “When such people [with a ‘weak constitution’] get faced with the challenges of military service and warfare, their bodies shut down, they shut down.”

Regardless of shell shock’s provenance, its prevalence alarmed military and medical leaders as the condition sidelined soldiers in a war demanding scores of men on the front lines. To add insult to injury, the turn of the century had brought with it “an increasingly uniform sense that no emotional tug should pull too hard,” writes historian Peter Stearns in his book American Cool: Constructing a Twentieth-Century Emotional Style, and accordingly, seeing soldiers rattled by shell shock concerned authorities. From the perspective of military and medical personnel, Eghigian explains, “The best and brightest of your young men, whom you staked so much on, they seem to be falling ill [and the explanation is] either they’re cowards, if they’re malingers, or they have constitutions like girls, who are historically associated with these kinds of ailments.”

American soldiers at a hospital camp in France recovering from what was then known as war neurosis or war neuroses. The caption from 1919 specifies that the treatment center was "located away from the noise of the hospitals and crowds." (National Archives)

Salmon’s call to screen out enlistees with weak constitutions evidently reached attentive ears. “Prevalence of mental disorders in replacement troops recently received suggests urgent importance of intensive efforts in eliminating mentally unfit from organizations new draft prior to departure from United States,” read a July 1918 telegram to the War Department, continuing, “It is doubtful whether the War Department can in any other way more importantly assist to lessen the difficulty felt by Gen. Pershing than by properly providing for initial psychological examination of every drafted man as soon as he enters camp.”

By this point, the United States military had created neuro-psychiatry and psychology divisions and even established a school of military psychology within the Medical Officers Training Camp in Georgia. The syllabus for the two-month training reflects the emphasis placed on preliminary screening (as opposed to addressing the wartime trauma that today’s psychologists would point to as the root cause of many veterans’ PTSD). Of the 365 class hours in the course, 8 were devoted to shell shock, 6 on malingering, and 115 on psychological examination.

The suggested schedule for the second month of the newly established school of military psychology in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. (From Psychological Examining in the United States Army, public domain)

Less than two years after the United States entered World War I, around 1,727,000 would-be soldiers had received a psychological evaluation, including the first group of intelligence tests, and roughly two percent of entrants were rejected for psychological concerns. Some of the soldiers being screened, like draftees at Camp Upton in Long Island, would have filled out a questionnaire of yes-no questions that Columbia professor Robert Sessions Woodworth created at the behest of the American Psychological Association.

Cornell psychologists who were employed to assess soldiers at Camp Greenleaf. (National Archives)

“The experience of other armies had shown,” Woodworth wrote, “that liability to ‘shell shock’ or war neurosis was a handicap almost as serious as low intelligence…I concluded that the best immediate lead lay in the early symptoms of neurotic tendency.” So Woodworth amassed symptoms from the case histories of soldiers with war neuroses and created a questionnaire, trying out the form on recruits, patients deemed “abnormal,” and groups of college students.

The questions on what would become the Woodworth Personal Data Sheet, or Psychoneurotic Inventory, started out asking if the subject felt “well and strong,” and then tried to pry into their psyche, asking about their personal life—“Did you ever think you had lost your manhood?”—and mental habits. If over one-fourth of the control (psychologically “normal”) group responded with a ‘yes’ to a question, it was eliminated.

Robert Sessions Woodworth, the psychologist who was tasked with developing a test that would screen recruits for shell shock susceptibility. (WikiCommons, public domain)

Some of the roughly 100 questions that made the final cut: Can you sit still without fidgeting? Do you often have the feeling of suffocating? Do you like outdoor life? Have you ever been afraid of going insane? The test would be scored, and if the score passed a certain threshold, a potential soldier would undergo an in-person psychological evaluation. The average college student, Woodworth found, would respond affirmatively to around ten of his survey’s questions. He also tested patients (not recruits) who’d been diagnosed as hysteric or shell shocked and found that this “abnormal” group scored higher, in the 30s or 40s.

Woodworth had tested out his questionnaire on more than 1000 recruits, but the war ended before he could move on to a broader trial or incorporate the Psychoneurotic Inventory into the army’s initial psychological exam. Nevertheless, his test made an impact—it’s the great-grandparent of today’s personality tests.

Watch the video: WW1 u0026 WW2 in Italy portrayed by memes