GENERAL SAMUEL POWHATAN CARTER, USA - History

GENERAL SAMUEL POWHATAN CARTER, USA - History



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VITAL STATISTICS
BORN: 1830 in Elizabethon, TN.
DIED: 1891 in Washington, DC.
CAMPAIGN: Jonesville
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Major General and Rear Admiral.
BIOGRAPHY
Samuel Powhatan Carter was born on August 6, 1819, in Elizabethton, Tennessee. He was educated at Washington College, in Virginia, and at the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton). Appointed a navy midshipman in 1840, he served on ships in the Pacific, on the Great, and with the home squadron. In 1845, he was ordered to the Naval Academy at Annapolis, and graduated in 1846. After returning to naval duty, he served on the ship of the line Ohio, from which he saw the fall of Vera Cruz. He later served with the Naval Observatory, the Mediterranean squadron, as an assistant professor a the Naval Academy and with the East India squadron. At the beginning of the Civil War, Carter was with the Brazil squadron. Tennessee Sen. Andrew Johnson and other individuals helped Carter obtain "special duty" with the War Department. Sent to Tennessee to organize and train volunteer forces, Carter managed to prepare more than a regiment of troops, the first troops to come from the state. He was soon commanding a Tennessee brigade, and was commissioned a brigadier general on May 1, 1862. Carter went on to lead a Union cavalry raid which defeated the Confederates at Holston, Carter's Station, and Jonesville. These Union victories helped reduce the pressure on Union forces at Murfreesboro. After commanding the left wing of the Union forces in the Battle of Kingston, North Carolina; he was brevetted a major general of volunteers. While Carter was serving in the US Army, the US Navy promoted him to lieutenant commander in 1863, then to commander in 1865. After the Civil War, Carter returned to the Navy, and had been appointed a rear admiral before his retirement in 1882. Remembered by fellow officers as "tall, handsome and dignified, graceful in carriage and very affable ... of sincere piety and undoubted courage," he died on May 26, 1891, in Washington, D. C.

Samuel P. Carter

Samuel Perry "Powhatan" Carter (August 6, 1819 – May 26, 1891) was a United States naval officer who served in the Union Army as a brevet major general during the American Civil War and became a rear admiral in the postbellum United States Navy. He was the first and thus far only United States officer to have been commissioned both a general officer and a Naval flag officer. C.f.: Joseph D. Stewart, Major General, (United States Marine Corps) and Vice Admiral (United States Maritime Service), the USMS being a civilian agency.


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Photo, Print, Drawing [General Samuel Powhatan Carter of General Staff U.S. Volunteers Infantry Regiment in uniform] / C.D. Fredricks & Co., 587 Broadway, New York 108 Calle de la Habana, Habana 31 Passage du Havre, Paris. digital file from original, front

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Carter, Samuel Powhatan

Samuel Powhatan Carter (pou´ətăn´, pouhăt´ən) , 1819󈟇, American naval officer and Union general in the Civil War, b. Elizabethton, Tenn., grad. Annapolis, 1846. In the Civil War he was transferred from the navy to the War Dept., sent to organize Union troops in East Tennessee, made brigadier general of volunteers (May, 1862), and given command of a cavalry division in the Army of the Ohio. Discharged from service as brevet major general (1866), he returned to the navy. In 1882 he was made a rear admiral on the retired list. Carter is said to have been the only American who was both a major general and a rear admiral.

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Reports in Official Records, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 79-116 824.

Battle, J.H., W.H. Perrin, and G.C. Kniffin, Kentucky: A History of the State. Louisville: F. A. Battey, 1885, Part 1, p. 391.

Lindsley, John B., The Military Annals of Tennessee, Confederate: First Series. Nashville: J. M. Lindsley & Co., 1886, pp. 794-795.

Reid, Whitelaw, Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen Generals and Soldiers. Vol. II. Columbus: Eclectic Publishing Co., 1893, pp. 893, 895.

Witham, George, Shiloh, Shells and Artillery Units. Memphis: Riverside Press, 1980, pp. 81-84.

Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kentucky: Confederate Kentucky Volunteers, War 1861-65. Vol. I. Frankfort, 1915, pp. 676-677.

York, Capt. Harrison B., Record of the 9th Independent Battery, Ohio Veteran Vol. Artillery. Cleveland: Fairbanks, Benedict & Co., 1864.

Compiled by Geoffrey R. Walden, 1997 copyright © 1997-1999, Geoffrey R. Walden all rights reserved.


1865 June 28th

Bering Sea. This date marked the most successful single day of the long cruise by the Confederate commerce raider CSS Shenandoah, commanded by Captain James Ireson Waddell. On this single day, Waddell captured eleven American whaling ships near the narrows of the Bering Strait. Nine whalers were destroyed while two were left afloat to carry the crews of the sunken vessels. So far, the commerce raider had seized 24 whalers and 14 merchant ships, with 1,053 sailors taken as prisoners. The loss of the ships was valued at $1,361,983.

Texas. Confederate Brigadier-General Joseph Orville Shelby and a small brigade of die-hard Confederates crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico. Most of the civilian companions dispersed, leaving the remainder to travel on to Mexico City where they offered their services to Emperor Maximilian. This offer was declined but they were offered land to settle at Carlota near Vera Cruz.

Union Organisation

USA: Brigadier-General Thomas Howard Ruger assumed command of the Department of North Carolina , succeeding Brigadier-General Samuel Powhatan Carter.

Ruger, Thomas Howard / New York-Wisconsin / Born 2 April 1833 Lima, New York / Died Stamford, Connecticut 3 June 1907
USMA 1 July 1854 3/46 Engineers-Infantry / Cadet USMA 1 July 1850 / Engineers 1 July 1854 / Resigned USA 1 April 1855 / Lieutenant-Colonel USV 3 rd Wisconsin Infantry 29 June 1861 / Colonel USV 1 September 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 4 April 1863 to rank from 29 November 1862 / Colonel USA 33 rd US Infantry 28 July 1866 / Mustered Out USV 1 September 1866 / 18 th US Infantry 15 March 1869 / Superintendent of USMA 1 September 1871-1 September 1876 / Brigadier-General USA 19 March 1886 / Major-General USA 8 February 1895 / Retired USA 2 April 1897 / Brevet 2 Lt USA 1 July 1854 Brevet Major-General USV 30 November 1864 Brevet Brigadier-General USA 2 March 1867 / WIA Antietam 17 September 1862
3 rd Brigade 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 17 September 1862-20 October 1862 / 1 st Brigade 2 nd Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 26 October 1862-30 December 1862 / 3 rd Brigade 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac February 1863-1 July 1863 / 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 1 July 1863-4 July 1863 / 3 rd Brigade 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 4 July 1863-16 August 1863 / 3 rd Brigade 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Potomac 16 September 1863-25 September 1863 /3 rd Brigade 1 st Division XII Corps Army of the Cumberland 25 September 1863-14 April 1864 / 2 nd Brigade 1 st Division XX Corps Army of the Potomac 14 April 1864-17 September 1864 / 2 nd Brigade 1 st Division XX Corps Army of the Potomac 17 October 1864-5 November 1864 / 2 nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 11 November 1864-8 December 1864 / 2 nd Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 27 December 1864-2 February 1865 / 1 st Division provisional Corps Department of North Carolina 25 February 1865-18 March 1865 / 1 st Division XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 18 March 1865-17 June 1865 / XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 17 June 1865-27 June 1865 / Department of North Carolina 28 June 1865-19 May 1866

USA: The Army of the Potomac was discontinued.

USA: II Corps (Potomac) was discontinued.

USA: V Corps (Potomac) was discontinued.

USA: VI Corps (Potomac) was discontinued.

Commander in Chief: President Andrew Johnson
Vice-President: Vacant
Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton
Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

South Atlantic Squadron: Sylvanus W Godon
Gulf Squadron: Henry Knox Thatcher
Pacific Squadron: George Frederick Pearson
West Indies Squadron: James Shedden Palmer
Mississippi River Squadron: Samuel Phillips Lee
Potomac Flotilla: Foxhall Alexander Parker

General–in-Chief: Ulysses Simpson Grant

Military Division of the Atlantic: George Gordon Meade awaited

  • Department of the East: John Adams Dix
  • Department of Washington: Christopher Columbus Augur
    • District of Alexandria: John Potts Slough
    • District of Washington: Orlando Bolivar Willcox
    • IX Corps Washington: John Grubb Parke
    • District of Eastern Virginia: George Henry Gordon
    • District of Virginia: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
    • District of Lynchburg: John Irvin Gregg
    • District of Fort Monroe: Nelson Appleton Miles
      • Sub-District of the Peninsula: Benjamin Chambers Ludlow
      • Sub-District of Blackwater: Gilbert Hunt McKibbin
      • Sub-District of Roanoke: Edward Ferrero
      • Sub-District of the Appomattox: Charles Henry Smith
      • District of Beaufort (NC): Charles Jackson Paine
      • District of Wilmington: John Worthington Ames
      • Army of the James: Edward Otho Cresap Ord
        • XXIV Corps James: John Gibbon
        • XXIII Corps Ohio: Jacob Dolson Cox
        • X Corps North Carolina: Adelbert Ames
        • Middle Department: Lewis Wallace interim Winfield Scott Hancock awaited
          • District of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: John Moulder Wilson temporary
          • District of Annapolis: Frederic Dummer Sewall

          Military Division of the Mississippi: William Tecumseh Sherman

          • Department of the Ohio: Edward Otho Cresap Ord awaited
          • Department of the Missouri: Grenville Mellen Dodge interim John Pope awaited
            • District of Minnesota: Henry Hastings Sibley
            • District of St Louis: James Alexander Williamson
            • District of Southwest Missouri: Thomas Jefferson McKean
            • District of North Missouri: George Spalding
            • District of Central Missouri: John Lourie Beveridge
            • District of Rolla: John Morrill
            • District of the Upper Arkansas: James Hobart Ford
            • Army of Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
              • VII Corps Arkansas: Joseph Jones Reynolds
              • XV Corps Tennessee: William Babcock Hazen
              • XVII Corps Tennessee: Mortimer Dormer Leggett temporary

              Military Division of the Gulf: Philip Henry Sheridan

              • Department of Texas: Horatio Gouverneur Wright awaited
                • Central District of Texas: David Sloane Stanley
                • Eastern District of Texas: Joseph Anthony Mower
                • Western District of Texas: Frederick Steele
                • District of Baton Rouge: John Giles Fonda
                • Eastern District of Louisiana: Thomas West Sherman
                • Western District of Louisiana: John Parker Hawkins
                • Northern District of Mississippi: Peter Joseph Osterhaus
                • Southern District of Mississippi: John Wynn Davidson
                • Western District of Mississippi: Jasper Adalmorn Maltby

                Military Division of the Pacific: Henry Wager Halleck awaited

                Military Division of the Tennessee: George Henry Thomas

                • Department of Tennessee: George Stoneman awaited
                • Department of Kentucky: John McAuley Palmer
                • Department of Georgia: James Blair Steedman awaited
                • Department of Alabama: Charles Robert Woods awaited
                  • District of Northern Alabama: Robert Seaman Granger

                  Confederate Organisation

                  CSA: Brigadier-General James Edward Harrison paroled at Houston, Texas.

                  Harrison, James Edward / South Carolina-Texas / Born 24 April 1815 Greenville, South Carolina / Died Waco, Texas 23 February 1875
                  Major PACS 1 st Battalion Texas Infantry 1861 / Lieutenant-Colonel PACS 15 th Texas Infantry May 1862 / Colonel PACS 1864 / Brigadier-General PACS 29 December 1864 to rank from 22 December 1864 / Paroled Houston, Texas 28 June 1865
                  Harrison’s Brigade Cavalry Division District of West Louisiana 1863 / Harrison’s Brigade District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona March 1865-7 April 1865 / 1 st Brigade Maxey’s Division District of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona 7 April 1865-26 May 1865

                  Union Generals

                  Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

                  Lieutenant-General USA

                  Major-General USA

                  Asterisk indicates concurrently Major-General USV

                  Henry Wager Halleck
                  William Tecumseh Sherman
                  George Gordon Meade
                  Philp Henry Sheridan
                  George Henry Thomas

                  Major-General USV

                  Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

                  John Adams Dix
                  Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
                  Benjamin Franklin Butler
                  David Hunter
                  Ethan Allen Hitchcock
                  Irvin McDowell*
                  William Starke Rosecrans*
                  John Pope*
                  Samuel Ryan Curtis
                  Lewis Wallace
                  George Cadwalader
                  Edward Otho Cresap Ord
                  Samuel Peter Heintzelman
                  Joseph Hooker*
                  Silas Casey
                  William Buel Franklin
                  Henry Warner Slocum
                  John James Peck
                  Alexander McDowell McCook
                  John Gray Foster
                  John Grubb Parke
                  Christopher Columbus Augur
                  Gordon Granger
                  Lovell Harrison Rousseau
                  George Stoneman
                  Oliver Otis Howard*
                  Daniel Edgar Sickles
                  Robert Huston Milroy
                  Daniel Butterfield
                  Winfield Scott Hancock*
                  George Sykes
                  David Sloane Stanley
                  John McAllister Schofield*
                  John McAuley Palmer
                  Frederick Steele
                  Abner Doubleday
                  John Alexander Logan
                  James Gilpatrick Blunt
                  George Lucas Hartsuff
                  Francis Preston Blair
                  Joseph Jones Reynolds
                  Alfred Pleasonton
                  Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
                  Quincy Adams Gillmore
                  William Farrar Smith
                  James Blair Steedman
                  Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
                  Horatio Gouverneur Wright
                  Andrew Jackson Smith
                  Grenville Mellen Dodge
                  John Gibbon
                  Peter Joseph Osterhaus
                  Joseph Antony Mower
                  George Crook
                  Godfrey Weitzel
                  Jacob Dolson Cox
                  William Babcock Hazen
                  John White Geary
                  Alfred Howe Terry*
                  Thomas John Wood
                  Charles Griffin
                  George Armstrong Custer
                  Henry Eugene Davies
                  James Harrison Wilson
                  Francis Channing Barlow
                  Gershom Mott
                  Benjamin Henry Grierson
                  Hugh Judson Kilpatrick
                  Wager Swayne

                  Brigadier-General USA

                  Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

                  (Irvin McDowell)
                  (William Starke Rosecrans)
                  Philip St George Cooke
                  (John Pope)
                  (Joseph Hooker)
                  (Winfield Scott Hancock)
                  (John McAllister Schofield)
                  (Oliver Otis Howard)
                  (Alfred Howe Terry)

                  Brigadier-General USV

                  Thomas West Sherman
                  Alpheus Starkey Williams
                  James Brewerton Ricketts
                  Orlando Bolivar Willcox
                  Henry Hayes Lockwood
                  Samuel Davis Sturgis
                  Henry Washington Benham
                  William Farquhar Barry
                  Lawrence Pike Graham
                  William Thomas Ward
                  John Gross Barnard
                  Innis Newton Palmer
                  Seth Williams
                  John Newton
                  George Wright
                  John Milton Brannan
                  John Porter Hatch
                  Albin Francisco Schoepf
                  Richard W Johnson
                  Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
                  George Washington Cullum
                  Thomas Jefferson McKean
                  Zealous Bates Tower
                  Jefferson Columbus Davis
                  James Henry Lane
                  William Scott Ketchum
                  John Wynn Davidson
                  Eugene Asa Carr
                  Thomas Alfred Davies
                  William Hemsley Emory
                  Henry Moses Judah
                  John Cook
                  John McArthur
                  Jacob Gartner Lauman
                  Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
                  Speed Smith Fry
                  Alexander Asboth
                  Robert Byington Mitchell
                  Cuvier Grover
                  Rufus Saxton
                  Benjamin Alvord
                  Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
                  Nathan Kimball
                  Charles Devens
                  Samuel Wylie Crawford
                  Henry Walton Wessells
                  James Henry Carleton
                  Absalom Baird
                  John Cleveland Robinson
                  Truman Seymour
                  Henry Prince
                  Alvin Peterson Hovey
                  James Clifford Veatch
                  William Plummer Benton
                  John Curtis Caldwell
                  George Sears Greene
                  Samuel Powhatan Carter
                  Erastus Barnard Tyler
                  George Henry Gordon
                  Stephen Gano Burbridge
                  Washington Lafayette Elliott
                  Albion Parris Howe
                  Benjamin Stone Roberts
                  Fitz-Henry Warren
                  Morgan Lewis Smith
                  Charles Cruft
                  Frederick Salomon
                  Henry Shaw Briggs
                  James Dada Morgan
                  Johann August Ernst Willich
                  George Foster Shepley
                  John Reese Kenly
                  John Potts Slough
                  Henry Jackson Hunt
                  Mason Brayman
                  Nathaniel James Jackson
                  George Washington Getty
                  Alfred Sully
                  Eliakim Parker Scammon
                  Robert Seaman Granger
                  Joseph Rodman West
                  George Leonard Andrews
                  William Hays
                  Israel Vogdes
                  Lewis Cass Hunt
                  Frank Wheaton
                  John Sanford Mason
                  Robert Ogden Tyler
                  Alfred Thomas Archimedes Torbert
                  William Dwight
                  Sullivan Amory Meredith
                  William Vandever
                  Alexander Schimmelfennig
                  Charles Kinnaird Graham
                  John Eugene Smith
                  Joseph Tarr Copeland
                  Edward Elmer Potter
                  Henry Beebee Carrington
                  John Haskell King
                  Adam Jacoby Slemmer
                  Thomas Hewson Neill
                  Thomas Gamble Pitcher
                  Thomas William Sweeny
                  William Passmore Carlin
                  Romeyn Beck Ayres
                  Richard Arnold
                  Edward Winslow Hinks
                  Michael Kelly Lawler
                  George Day Wagner
                  Lysander Cutler
                  Joseph Farmer Knipe
                  John Dunlap Stevenson
                  James Barnes
                  Samuel Beatty
                  Edward Henry Hobson
                  Joseph Dana Webster
                  William Hopkins Morris
                  Thomas Howard Ruger
                  Elias Smith Dennis
                  Thomas Church Haskell Smith
                  Mortimer Dormer Leggett
                  Davis Tillson
                  Marcellus Monroe Crocker
                  Egbert Benson Brown
                  George Francis McGinnis
                  Hugh Boyle Ewing
                  Daniel Ullmann
                  George Jerrison Stannard
                  Henry Baxter
                  John Milton Thayer
                  Charles Thomas Campbell
                  Robert Brown Potter
                  Henry Hastings Sibley
                  Joseph Bradford Carr
                  Joseph Jackson Bartlett
                  Patrick Edward Connor
                  John Parker Hawkins
                  Gabriel René Paul
                  Edward Augustus Wild
                  Adelbert Ames
                  William Birney
                  Daniel Henry Rucker
                  Robert Allen
                  Rufus Ingalls
                  Alexander Shaler
                  Robert Sanford Foster
                  Alexander Stewart Webb
                  Alfred Napoleon Alexander Duffié
                  Walter Chiles Whitaker
                  Wesley Merritt
                  William Denison Whipple
                  Kenner Garrard
                  Charles Robert Woods
                  John Benjamin Sanborn
                  Giles Alexander Smith
                  Jasper Adalmorn Maltby
                  Thomas Kilby Smith
                  Walter Quintin Gresham
                  Manning Ferguson Force
                  John Murray Corse
                  John Aaron Rawlins
                  Alvan Cullem Gillem
                  John Wesley Turner
                  Henry Warner Birge
                  Adin Ballou Underwood
                  Augustus Louis Chetlain
                  William Anderson Pile
                  John Wallace Fuller
                  John Franklin Miller
                  Philippe Régis Dénis de Keredern De Trobriand
                  Cyrus Bussey
                  Christopher Columbus Andrews
                  Edward Moody McCook
                  Lewis Addison Grant
                  Edward Hatch
                  August Valentine Kautz
                  Francis Fessenden
                  John Rutter Brooke
                  John Frederick Hartranft
                  Samuel Sprigg Carroll
                  Simon Goodell Griffin
                  Emory Upton
                  Nelson Appleton Miles
                  Joseph Hayes
                  Byron Root Pierce
                  Selden Connor
                  Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
                  Elliott Warren Rice
                  William Francis Bartlett
                  Edward Stuyvesant Bragg
                  Martin Davis Hardin
                  Charles Jackson Paine
                  Gustavus Adolphus De Russy
                  John Baillie McIntosh
                  George Henry Chapman
                  William Grose
                  Joseph Alexander Cooper
                  John Thomas Croxton
                  John Wilson Sprague
                  Luther Prentice Bradley
                  Charles Carroll Walcutt
                  William Worth Belknap
                  Joseph Abel Haskin
                  James Deering Fessenden
                  Eli Long
                  Thomas Wilberforce Egan
                  Joseph Roswell Hawley
                  Isaac Hardin Duval
                  John Edwards
                  Thomas Casimer Devin
                  Alfred Gibbs
                  Ranald Slidell Mackenzie
                  James Richard Slack
                  Thomas John Lucas
                  Edmund Jackson Davis
                  Joseph Bailey
                  George Lafayette Beal
                  Henry Goddard Thomas
                  Cyrus Hamlin
                  John Morrison Oliver
                  Robert Kingston Scott
                  James Sidney Robinson
                  Benjamin Franklin Potts
                  John Grant Mitchell
                  James Alexander Williamson
                  Newton Martin Curtis
                  Charles Camp Doolittle
                  Stephen Thomas
                  James Isham Gilbert
                  Galusha Pennypacker
                  Charles John Stolbrand
                  Charles Ewing
                  Stewart Van Vliet
                  Thomas Maley Harris
                  Frederick Tracy Dent
                  Thomas Ogden Osborn
                  Joseph Haydn Potter
                  James Sanks Brisbin
                  James Meech Warner
                  Lewis Baldwin Parsons
                  Oliver Edwards
                  Joseph Eldridge Hamblin
                  William Wells
                  Richard Henry Jackson
                  James William Forsyth
                  Charles Hale Morgan
                  Henry Alanson Barnum
                  Americus Vespucius Rice
                  William Burnham Woods
                  William Thomas Clark
                  Robert Francis Catterson
                  George Peabody Este
                  William Henry Penrose

                  Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

                  Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
                  Lorenzo Thomas
                  George Douglas Ramsay
                  James Barnet Fry (Provost Marshal)
                  Richard Delafield (Engineers)
                  Joseph Holt (Judge Advocate-General)
                  Amos Beebe Eaton (Commissary-General of Subsistence)
                  Joseph K Barnes (Surgeon-General)
                  Alexander Brydie Dyer (Ordnance)


                  --> Carter, Samuel Perry "Powhatan", 1819-1891

                  Carter was born in Elizabethton, Tennessee, the eldest son of Alfred Moore Carter, a direct descendant of the early settlers for whom Carter County is named. His mother was Evalina Belmont Perry. Although later known as Samuel Powhatan Carter, Samuel's middle name was Perry. He had two brothers, William Blount Carter and James Patton Taylor Carter. Samuel Carter attended the Duffield Academy in Elizabethton, Washington College in Limestone, and Princeton University before enlisting in the U.S. Navy in February 1840. Serving as a midshipman, Carter's five years of service included duty in the Pacific and Great Lakes region before transferring to the United States Naval Academy. He graduated in the class of 1846, later seeing action during the Mexican–American War aboard the USS Ohio at the Battle of Veracruz.

                  Stationed at the United States Naval Observatory for several years following the war, Carter became an assistant professor of mathematics at the United States Naval Academy for three years, from 1850 to 1853. After another tour of duty with the Pacific and Brazil Squadrons, he served in various duties before winning promotion to lieutenant in April 1855. The following year, Carter was present aboard the USS San Jacinto during the bombardment of Chinese coastal fortifications before returning to the United States to be appointed to the staff at the U.S. Naval Academy, remaining at this tour of duty until 1860.

                  In early 1861, after receiving a letter from Carter assuring his loyalty to the Union should a civil war break out, Tennessee senator Andrew Johnson used his influence in the War Department for Carter to be detached from the Navy. Carter was ordered to organize and enlist Unionists within his native East Tennessee, where the majority of the population remained loyal. When Confederate occupation of the region prevented this, Carter raised a brigade of infantry from among the hundreds of East Tennesseans fleeing to Kentucky. During this time he adopted "Powhatan" as a code name when corresponding secretly with Unionists who remained behind Confederate lines. Carter's younger brother, William B. Carter (1820–1902), planned and coordinated the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy in late 1861.

                  Carter was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers without resigning from the Navy. He led an infantry brigade at the Battle of Mill Springs on January 19, 1862, and participated in operations under Brigadier General George W. Morgan that resulted in the occupation of Cumberland Gap on June 17, 1862. Carter's hope that Morgan would then invade and occupy East Tennessee was dashed when Morgan was forced to retreat in the face of a Confederate move into Kentucky—Braxton Bragg's Perryville Campaign.

                  Following Bragg's defeat and retreat to Middle Tennessee, Carter successfully lobbied his superiors for permission to conduct a raid into East Tennessee. Carter's plan was to cripple the vital East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. This would support the operations of Major General William S. Rosecrans in Middle Tennessee, and test the route through the mountains as a potential path of invasion. The result was the first long-range, large-scale Federal cavalry raid of the war. With a force of just under 1,000 men Carter moved through the rugged mountains of eastern Kentucky and Tennessee during the last week of 1862. On December 30 he destroyed railroad and wagon bridges at both Union and Carter's Depot (present day Watauga), Tennessee. He repeatedly defeated the Confederate forces in his path, captured a moving train, destroyed tens of thousands of dollars of military stores, and returned safely to Kentucky on January 2, 1863. Plans to follow the raid with an invasion and occupation of East Tennessee, a move urged by Lincoln, were canceled when Carter reported the route impracticable for a large force.

                  In July 1863, Carter was placed in command of the XXIII Corps cavalry division and continued campaigning across Tennessee throughout the year, engaging Confederate forces during the Battle of Blue Springs of the Knoxville Campaign.

                  By 1865, Carter was in North Carolina and commanding the left wing of the Union forces at the Battle of Wyse Fork. He was promoted to brevet major general of volunteers on March 13, 1865, briefly commanding the XXIII Corps before being mustered out of volunteer service in January 1866.

                  While Carter was serving in the Union Army, the U.S. Navy promoted him to lieutenant commander in 1863, then to commander in 1865.

                  Returning to naval service, Carter was appointed a commander due to his military record during the Civil War. Rejoining the Pacific Squadron, he commanded the USS Monocacy. He was promoted to captain in October 1870, served as commandant of midshipman in the Naval Academy until 1873, and returned to sea duty in Europe before being named a member of the Lighthouse Board in 1877.

                  After the Civil War, Carter became a Veteran Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS), a military society composed of Union officers and their descendants.

                  In 1877, Carter married Martha Custis Williams (1827–1899), a descendant of Martha Custis Washington. Promoted to commodore in November 1878, Carter retired in August 1881, shortly before being promoted to rear admiral on the retired list in May 1882. He lived in retirement until his death in Washington, D.C. Carter is buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery.

                  Fellow officers remembered Carter as "tall, handsome and dignified, graceful in carriage and very affable . a 'soldierly Christian' of sincere piety and undoubted courage."

                  A Tennessee Historical Marker located on West Elk Avenue in front of the S. P. Carter home in downtown Elizabethton, Tennessee, commemorates his life and naval career.


                  Contents

                  Carter was born in Elizabethton, Tennessee, the eldest son of Alfred Moore Carter, a direct descendant of the early settlers for whom Carter County is named. His mother was Evalina Belmont Perry. Although later known as Samuel Powhatan Carter, Samuel's middle name was Perry. He had two brothers, William Blount Carter and James Patton Taylor Carter. Samuel Carter attended Washington College and Princeton University before enlisting in the U.S. Navy in February 1840. Serving as a midshipman, Carter's five years of service included duty in the Pacific and Great Lakes region before transferring to the United States Naval Academy. He graduated in the class of 1846, later seeing action during the Mexican-American War aboard the USS Ohio at the Battle of Veracruz.

                  Stationed at the United States Naval Observatory for several years following the war, Carter became an assistant professor of mathematics at the United States Naval Academy for three years, from 1850 to 1853. After another tour of duty with the Pacific and Brazil Squadrons, he served in various duties before winning promotion to lieutenant in April 1855. The following year, Carter was present aboard the USS San Jacinto during the bombardment of Chinese coastal fortifications before returning to the United States to be appointed to the staff at the U.S. Naval Academy, remaining at this tour of duty until 1860.


                  1862 May 1st

                  Occupation of New Orleans, LA(CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

                  Pulaski, TN

                  Peninsula Campaign – Siege of Yorktown

                  FirstCorinth Campaign

                  Operations at New Orleans

                  Confederate Evacuation of New Mexico

                  USA. The first operational submarine of the US Navy was launched and named Alligator. The vessel was never commissioned officially as USS Alligator.

                  Alabama. Operations by Union Major-General McKnight Mitchel at Athens, Limestone Bridge, Mooresville, and Elk River began. Incident at Bridgeport.

                  New Orleans, Louisiana. Union Major-General Benjamin Franklin Butler became US Military Governor of Louisiana. He began landing his army of the Department of the Gulf south of New Orleans and marched to occupy the city which had surrendered to the US Navy. He garrisoned Fort Jackson and Fort St Philip on the Mississippi River with one regiment and led the rest of his troops overland to the city. New Orleans was the largest city in the Confederacy and its loss was an event of major international significance. Butler’s controversial administration of the southeast third of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans was described later as “one of the most corrupt administrations in the city’s history.” (CWSAC Major Battle Union Victory)

                  Louisiana. USS Hatteras, Commander Emmons, captured the schooner Magnolia near Berwick Bay with a cargo of cotton.

                  Mississippi. Incident at Farmington.

                  North Carolina. USS Jamestown, Commander Green, captured the British blockade-runner Intended off the coast with a cargo of salt, coffee, and medicines.

                  South Carolina. USS Huron, Lieutenant Downes, captured the schooner Albert off Charleston.

                  South Carolina. The schooner Sarah ran aground at Bull’s Bay and was destroyed by her own crew to prevent capture by USS Onward, Acting Lieutenant Nickels.

                  Pulaski, Tennessee. Confederate Colonel John Hunt Morgan led his raiders into the town of Pulaski where a Union party was stringing telegraph lines. The Confederate captured 268 Union troops. As the prisoners were being rounded up, Morgan learned that a Union cavalry detachment of 50 men was approaching the town. Morgan sent a skirmish line to delay the reinforcements while he made off with the prisoners.

                  Virginia. Skirmish at Camp Creek in the Stone River Valley.

                  Virginia. Skirmish at Clark’s Hollow.

                  Virginia. Skirmish on the Lewisburg Road involving Union Brigadier-General Jacob Dolson Cox.

                  Virginia. Skirmish at Rapidan Station.

                  Virginia. Having emplaced about a hundred heavy Parrott siege guns, Major-General George Brinton McClellan ordered the first gun to open fire from his siege works against the Confederate defences at Yorktown.

                  Virginia. USS Marblehead, Lieutenant Somerville Nicholson, shelled the Confederate positions at Yorktown.

                  Union Organisation

                  USA: William Tecumseh Sherman promoted Major-General USV 3 May 1862 to rank from 1 May 1862

                  Sherman, William Tecumseh / Ohio / Born 8 February 1820 Lancaster, Ohio / Died New York, New York 14 February 1891
                  USMA 1 July 1840 6/42 Artillery / Cadet USMA 1 July 1836 / 2 nd Lieutenant USA 3 rd US Artillery 1 July 1840 / 1 st Lieutenant USA 30 November 1841 / Captain USA Assistant Commissary of Subsistence 27 September 1850 / Resigned USA 6 September 1853 / Major-General California Militia 1856-1857 / Colonel USA 13 th US Infantry 14 May 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 3 August 1861 to rank from 17 May 1861 / Major-General USV 3 May 1862 to rank from 1 May 1862 / Brigadier-General USA 4 August 1863 to rank from 4 July 1863 / Mustered Out USV 12 August 1864 / Major-General USA 12 August 1864 / Lieutenant-General USA 25 July 1866 / General USA 4 March 1869 / General-in-Chief of the US Army 4 March 1869-1 November 1883 / Retired USA 8 February 1884 / Brevet Captain USA 30 May 1848 Brevet General USA 13 February 1868 Withdrawn / WIA First Bull Run 21 July 1861 WIA Shiloh 6 April 1862
                  3 rd Brigade 1 st Division Department of Northeastern Virginia 30 June 1861-17 August 1861 / Sherman’s Brigade Army of the Potomac 17 August 1861-28 August 1861 / Department of the Cumberland 6 October 1861-9 November 1861 / District of Cairo 14 February 1862-11 March 1862 / 5 th Division Army of the Tennessee 1 March 1862-11 July 1862 / 5 th Division District of Memphis 21 July 1862-26 October 1862 / District of Memphis 26 October 1862-25 November 1862 / Right Wing XIII Corps Tennessee 27 November 1862-22 December 1862 / XV Corps Tennessee 22 December 1862-4 January 1863 / II Corps Mississippi 4 January 1863-12 January 1863 / XV Corps Tennessee 12 January 1863-29 October 1863 / Department of the Tennessee 17 October 1863-12 March 1864 / Army of the Tennessee 24 October 1863-26 March 1864 / Military Division of the Mississippi 18 March 1864-6 August 1866 / Military Division of the Missouri 6 August 1866-16 March 1869 / Military Division of the Atlantic 12 February 1868-12 February 1868 / General-in-Chief 4 March 1869-1 November 1883

                  USA: Samuel Powhatan Carter promoted Brigadier-General USV 2 May 1862 to rank from 1 May 1862.

                  Carter, Samuel Powhatan (Perry) / Tennessee / Born 6 August 1819 Elizabethton, Tennessee / Died Washington, District of Columbia 26 May 1891
                  USNA 1846 / Midshipman USN 14 February 1840 / Passed Midshipman USN 11 July 1846 / Master USN 9 December 1854 / Lieutenant USN 18 April 1855 / Colonel USV Tennessee Infantry July 1861 / Brigadier-General USV 2 May 1862 to rank from 1 May 1862 / Lieutenant-Commander USN 16 July 1862/ Commander USN 25 June 1865 / Mustered Out USV 15 January 1866 / Commandant USNA 1869-1872 / Captain USN 28 October 1870 / Commodore USN 13 November 1878 / Retired USN 6 August 1881 / Rear Admiral USN Retired 16 May 1882 / Brevet Major-General USV 13 March 1865
                  12 th Brigade Department of the Ohio 30 November 1861-2 December 1861 / 12 th Brigade 1 st Division Department of the Ohio 2 December 1861-5 December 1861 /District of the Gap 11 March 1862-26 June 1862 / 24 th Brigade 7 th Division Department of the Ohio 26 March 1862-10 October 1862 / 3 rd Brigade District of the Cumberland November 1862-December 1862 / 4 th Brigade East Tennessee Division IX Corps Department of the Ohio 18 March 1863-3 June 1863 / 1 st Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 3 June 1863-15 June 1863 / 1 st Brigade 1 st Division XIII Corps Department of the Ohio 24 June 1863-10 July 1863 / 1 st Division XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 19 July 1863-6 August 1863 / District of Eastern Kentucky 6 August 1863-15 August 1863 / 4 th Division Cavalry XXIII Corps Army of the Ohio 6 August 1863-4 September 1863 / Provost Marshal-General Army of the Ohio October 1863-20 January 1865 / 2 nd Division District of Beaufort NC 1 March 1865-18 March 1865 / Carter’s Division District of Beaufort NC 16 March 1865-2 April 1865 / 3 rd Division XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 7 April 1865-26 June 1865 / XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 27 June 1865-12 July 1865 / Department of North Carolina 27 June 1865 -27 June 1865 / District of Greensboro 6 July 1865-15 January 1866 / 1 st Division XXIII Corps Department of North Carolina 12 July 1865

                  Commander in Chief: President Abraham Lincoln

                  Vice-President: Hannibal Hamlin

                  Secretary of War: Edwin McMasters Stanton

                  Secretary of the Navy: Gideon Welles

                  North Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough
                  South Atlantic Blockading Squadron: Samuel Francis Du Pont
                  West Gulf Blockading Squadron: David Glasgow Farragut
                  East Gulf Blockading Squadron: William McKean
                  Pacific Squadron: Charles H Bell
                  Western Gunboat Flotilla: Andrew Hull Foote
                  Potomac Flotilla: Robert Harris Wyman

                  Chairman of the War Board: Ethan Allen Hitchcock

                  Department of the Mississippi: Henry Wager Halleck

                  • District of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
                    • Army of West Tennessee: Ulysses Simpson Grant
                    • Army of the Mississippi: John Pope
                    • Army of the Ohio: Don Carlos Buell
                    • Sub-District of Columbus: Isaac Ferdinand Quinby

                    Department of the Missouri: Henry Wager Halleck

                    • District of St Louis: Lewis Merrill
                    • District of Central Missouri: James Totten
                    • District of Southeast Missouri: Frederick Steele
                    • District of Southwest Missouri: Samuel Ryan Curtis
                      • Army of the Southwest: Samuel Ryan Curtis

                      Department of the Gulf: Benjamin Franklin Butler

                      Middle Department: John Adams Dix

                      Mountain Department: John Charles Frémont

                      • Cheat Mountain District: Thomas Maley Harris
                      • Railroad District: Benjamin Franklin Kelley
                      • District of the Kanawha: Jacob Dolson Cox
                      • District of the Gap: Samuel Powhatan Carter
                      • District of the Valley of the Big Sandy River: James Abram Garfield

                      Department of New Mexico: Edward Richard Sprigg Canby

                      Department of New York: Edward Denison Morgan

                      Department of North Carolina: Ambrose Everett Burnside

                      Department of the Pacific: George Wright

                      • District of the Humboldt: Francis James Lippitt
                      • District of Oregon: Albemarle Cady
                      • District of Southern California: James Henry Carleton

                      Department of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan

                      • Army of the Potomac: George Brinton McClellan
                        • II Corps Potomac: Edwin Vose Sumner
                        • III Corps Potomac: Samuel Peter Heintzelman
                        • IV Corps Potomac: Erasmus Darwin Keyes

                        Department of the Rappahannock: Irvin McDowell

                        Department of the Shenandoah: Nathaniel Prentiss Banks

                        Department of the South: David Hunter

                        • Northern District of the South: Henry Washington Benham
                        • Southern District of the South: John Milton Brannan
                        • Western District of the South: Lewis Golding Arnold

                        Department of Texas: Vacant

                        Department of Virginia: John Ellis Wool

                        Confederate Organisation

                        Commander in Chief: President Jefferson Finis Davis

                        Vice-President: Alexander Hamilton Stephens

                        Secretary of War: George Wythe Randolph

                        Secretary of the Navy: Stephen Russell Mallory

                        Military Adviser to the President: Robert Edward Lee

                        Department No 1: Mansfield Lovell

                        Department of Alabama and West Florida: John Horace Forney temporary

                        Department of Middle and Eastern Florida: Joseph Finegan

                        Department of East Tennessee: Edmund Kirby Smith

                        Department of Henrico: John Henry Winder

                        Department of the Indian Territory: Douglas Hancock Cooper

                        Department of North Carolina: Theophilus Hunter Holmes

                        • District of Cape Fear: Samuel Gibbs French
                        • District of Pamlico: Robert Ransom temporary
                        • District of Roanoke Island: Henry Marchmore Shaw

                        Department of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston

                        • District of Aquia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
                        • Army of Northern Virginia: Joseph Eggleston Johnston
                          • Right Wing Northern Virginia: James Longstreet
                          • Left Wing Northern Virginia: Gustavus Woodson Smith
                          • Centre Wing Northern Virginia: Daniel Harvey Hill
                          • Army of the Valley: Thomas Jonathan Jackson

                          Department of South Carolina and Georgia: John Clifford Pemberton

                          • District of Georgia: Alexander Robert Lawton
                          • District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
                            • 1 st Sub-District of South Carolina: Arthur Middleton Manigault.
                            • 2 nd Sub-District of South Carolina: Roswell Sabine Ripley
                            • 3 rd Sub-District of South Carolina: Nathan George Evans
                            • 4 th Sub-District of South Carolina: Maxcy Gregg
                            • 5 th Sub-District of South Carolina: Daniel Smith Donelson
                            • 6 th Sub-District of South Carolina: Thomas Fenwick Drayton

                            Department of Southwestern Virginia: William Wing Loring

                            Department of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert

                            • Eastern District of Texas: Paul Octave Hébert
                            • Western District of Texas: Henry Eustace McCullough
                            • Sub-District of Houston: John C Bowen
                            • Sub-District of Galveston: Ebenezer B Nichols
                            • Sub-District of the Rio Grande: Hamilton Prioleau Bee
                            • Defences of Pass Cavallo: John W Glenn

                            Western Department: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard

                            • Trans-Mississippi District: Earl Van Dorn
                            • District of North Alabama: Daniel Ruggles
                            • Army of Mississippi: Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
                              • I Corps Mississippi: Leonidas Polk
                              • II Corps Mississippi: Braxton Bragg
                              • III Corps Mississippi: William Joseph Hardee
                              • Reserve Corps Mississippi: John Cabell Breckinridge

                              District of Arizona: Henry Hopkins Sibley

                              Forces in Richmond: Charles Dimmock

                              Union Generals

                              Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

                              Major-General USA

                              George Brinton McClellan
                              John Charles Frémont
                              Henry Wager Halleck

                              Major-General USV

                              Asterisk indicates concurrently Brigadier-General USA

                              John Adams Dix
                              Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
                              Benjamin Franklin Butler
                              David Hunter
                              Edwin Denison Morgan
                              Ethan Allen Hitchcock
                              Ulysses Simpson Grant
                              Irvin McDowell*
                              Ambrose Everett Burnside
                              William Starke Rosecrans*
                              Don Carlos Buell
                              John Pope
                              Samuel Ryan Curtis
                              Franz Sigel
                              John Alexander McClernand
                              Charles Ferguson Smith
                              Lewis Wallace
                              Ormsby McKnight Mitchel
                              Cassius Marcellus Clay
                              George Henry Thomas
                              George Cadwalader
                              William Tecumseh Sherman

                              Brigadier-General USA

                              Brackets indicates concurrently Major-General USV

                              John Ellis Wool
                              William Selby Harney
                              Edwin Vose Sumner
                              Joseph King Fenno Mansfield
                              (Irvin McDowell)
                              Robert Anderson
                              (William Starke Rosecrans)
                              Philip St George Cooke

                              Brigadier-General USV

                              Samuel Peter Heintzelman
                              Erasmus Darwin Keyes
                              Andrew Porter
                              Fitz-John Porter
                              William Buel Franklin
                              Charles Pomeroy Stone
                              Thomas West Sherman
                              George Archibald McCall
                              William Reading Montgomery
                              Philip Kearny
                              Joseph Hooker
                              John Wolcott Phelps
                              Charles Smith Hamilton
                              Darius Nash Couch
                              Rufus King
                              Jacob Dolson Cox
                              Stephen Augustus Hurlbut
                              Robert Cumming Schenck
                              Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss
                              Benjamin Franklin Kelley
                              Alpheus Starkey Williams
                              Israel Bush Richardson
                              James Cooper
                              James Brewerton Ricketts
                              Orlando Bolivar Willcox
                              Michael Corcoran
                              Henry Hayes Lockwood
                              Louis Blenker
                              Henry Warner Slocum
                              James Samuel Wadsworth
                              John James Peck
                              George Webb Morell
                              John Henry Martindale
                              Samuel Davis Sturgis
                              George Stoneman
                              Henry Washington Benham
                              William Farrar Smith
                              James William Denver
                              Egbert Ludovicus Vielé
                              James Shields
                              John Fulton Reynolds
                              William Farquhar Barry
                              John Joseph Abercrombie
                              John Sedgwick
                              Silas Casey
                              Lawrence Pike Graham
                              George Gordon Meade
                              Abram Duryée
                              Alexander McDowell McCook
                              Oliver Otis Howard
                              Eleazar Arthur Paine
                              Charles Davis Jameson
                              Ebenezer Dumont
                              Robert Huston Milroy
                              Willis Arnold Gorman
                              Daniel Butterfield
                              Horatio Gouverneur Wright
                              Edward Otho Cresap Ord
                              William Nelson
                              William Thomas Ward
                              John Gross Barnard
                              Innis Newton Palmer
                              Seth Williams
                              John Newton
                              Winfield Scott Hancock
                              Thomas Leonidas Crittenden
                              George Wright
                              Isaac Ingalls Stevens
                              Thomas Williams
                              George Sykes
                              William Henry French
                              William Thomas Harbaugh Brooks
                              John Milton Brannan
                              William Wallace Burns
                              John Porter Hatch
                              David Sloane Stanley
                              William Kerley Strong
                              Albin Francisco Schoepf
                              Lovell Harrison Rousseau
                              James Scott Negley
                              Thomas John Wood
                              Richard W Johnson
                              Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich Von Steinwehr
                              Joseph Bennett Plummer
                              John Gray Foster
                              George Washington Cullum
                              Jeremiah Tilford Boyle
                              Christopher Columbus Augur
                              Schuyler Hamilton
                              Jesse Lee Reno
                              George Washington Morgan
                              Julius Stahel
                              John McAllister Schofield
                              Thomas Jefferson McKean
                              John Grubb Parke
                              Zealous Bates Tower
                              Jefferson Columbus Davis
                              James Henry Lane
                              John McAuley Palmer
                              William High Keim
                              James Abram Garfield
                              Lewis Golding Arnold
                              Frederick Steele
                              William Scott Ketchum
                              Abner Doubleday
                              John Wynn Davidson
                              Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana
                              David Bell Birney
                              Thomas Francis Meagher
                              Henry Morris Naglee
                              Andrew Johnson
                              James Gallant Spears
                              Eugene Asa Carr
                              Thomas Alfred Davies
                              Daniel Tyler
                              William Hemsley Emory
                              Andrew Jackson Smith
                              Marsena Rudolph Patrick
                              Isaac Ferdinand Quinby
                              Hiram Gregory Berry
                              Orris Sanford Ferry
                              Daniel Phineas Woodbury
                              Henry Moses Judah
                              Richard James Oglesby
                              John Cook
                              John McArthur
                              Robert Latimer McCook
                              Jacob Gartner Lauman
                              Horatio Phillips Van Cleve
                              John Alexander Logan
                              Speed Smith Fry
                              Alexander Asboth
                              James Craig
                              Mahlon Dickerson Manson
                              Gordon Granger
                              Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
                              Grenville Mellen Dodge
                              Robert Byington Mitchell
                              James Gilpatrick Blunt
                              Francis Engle Patterson
                              Quincy Adams Gillmore
                              Amiel Weeks Whipple
                              Cuvier Grover
                              George Lucas Hartsuff
                              Rufus Saxton
                              Benjamin Alvord
                              Napoleon Bonaparte Buford
                              William Sooy Smith
                              Nathan Kimball
                              Charles Devens
                              James Henry Van Alen
                              Carl Schurz
                              Samuel Wylie Crawford
                              Henry Walton Wessells
                              Milo Smith Hascall
                              Leonard Fulton Ross
                              John White Geary
                              Alfred Howe Terry
                              Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
                              James Henry Carleton
                              Absalom Baird
                              John Cleveland Robinson
                              Truman Seymour
                              George Dashiell Bayard
                              Henry Prince
                              Abram Sanders Piatt
                              Thomas Turpin Crittenden
                              Maximilian Weber
                              Pleasant Adam Hackleman
                              Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan
                              Alvin Peterson Hovey
                              James Clifford Veatch
                              William Plummer Benton
                              Henry Bohlen
                              John Curtis Caldwell
                              Isaac Peace Rodman
                              Neal S Dow
                              George Sears Greene
                              Samuel Powhatan Carter

                              Brigadier-General USA (Staff)

                              Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (Quartermaster-General)
                              Henry Knox Craig
                              Lorenzo Thomas (Adjutant-General)
                              James Wolfe Ripley (Ordnance)
                              William Alexander Hammond (Surgeon-General)

                              Confederate Generals

                              Note: Italics, awaiting confirmation of the commission

                              General ACSA/PACS

                              Samuel Cooper
                              Robert Edward Lee
                              Joseph Eggleston Johnston
                              Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
                              Braxton Bragg

                              Major-General PACS

                              Leonidas Polk
                              Earl Van Dorn
                              Gustavus Woodson Smith
                              Theophilus Hunter Holmes
                              William Joseph Hardee
                              Benjamin Huger
                              James Longstreet
                              John Bankhead Magruder
                              Mansfield Lovell
                              Thomas Jonathan Jackson
                              Edmund Kirby Smith
                              George Bibb Crittenden
                              John Clifford Pemberton
                              Richard Stoddert Ewell
                              William Wing Loring
                              Sterling Price
                              Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
                              Samuel Jones
                              John Porter McCown
                              Daniel Harvey Hill
                              Jones Mitchell Withers
                              Thomas Carmichael Hindman
                              John Cabell Breckinridge

                              Brigadier-General PACS

                              Alexander Robert Lawton
                              Charles Clark
                              John Buchanan Floyd
                              Henry Alexander Wise
                              David Rumph Jones
                              Henry Hopkins Sibley
                              John Henry Winder
                              Richard Caswell Gatlin
                              Daniel Smith Donelson
                              Samuel Read Anderson
                              Richard Heron Anderson
                              Robert Augustus Toombs
                              Arnold Elzey
                              William Henry Chase Whiting
                              Jubal Anderson Early
                              Isaac Ridgeway Trimble
                              Daniel Ruggles
                              Roswell Sabine Ripley
                              Albert Pike
                              Paul Octave Hébert
                              Joseph Reid Anderson
                              Simon Bolivar Buckner
                              Albert Gallatin Blanchard
                              Gabriel James Rains
                              James Ewell Brown Stuart
                              Lafayette McLaws
                              Thomas Fenwick Drayton
                              Lloyd Tilghman
                              Nathan George Evans
                              Cadmus Marcellus Wilcox
                              Robert Emmett Rodes
                              Richard Taylor
                              James Heyward Trapier
                              Samuel Gibbs French
                              William Henry Carroll
                              Hugh Weedon Mercer
                              Humphrey Marshall
                              Richard Griffith
                              Alexander Peter Stewart
                              William Montgomery Gardner
                              Richard Brooke Garnett
                              William Mahone
                              Lawrence O’Bryan Branch
                              Edward Johnson
                              Maxcy Gregg
                              Raleigh Edward Colston
                              Henry Heth
                              Johnson Kelly Duncan
                              Sterling Alexander Martin Wood
                              John George Walker
                              John King Jackson
                              George Edward Pickett
                              Bushrod Rust Johnson
                              James Patton Anderson
                              Howell Cobb
                              George Wythe Randolph
                              Joseph Brevard Kershaw
                              James Ronald Chalmers
                              Joseph Lewis Hogg
                              Ambrose Powell Hill
                              James Johnston Pettigrew
                              Carter Littlepage Stevenson
                              Daniel Leadbetter
                              William Whann Mackall
                              Charles Sidney Winder
                              Robert Ransom
                              John Bell Hood
                              Daniel Marsh Frost
                              Winfield Scott Featherston
                              Thomas James Churchill
                              William Booth Taliaferro
                              Albert Rust
                              Patrick Ronayne Cleburne
                              Samuel Bell Maxey
                              Hamilton Prioleau Bee
                              James Morrison Hawes
                              George Hume Steuart
                              William Duncan Smith
                              James Edwin Slaughter
                              Charles William Field
                              John Horace Forney
                              Paul Jones Semmes
                              Lucius Marshall Walker
                              Seth Maxwell Barton
                              Dabney Herndon Maury
                              John Bordenave Villepigue
                              Henry Eustace McCullough
                              John Stevens Bowen
                              Benjamin Hardin Helm
                              John Selden Roane
                              States Rights Gist
                              William Nelson Pendleton
                              Lewis Addison Armistead
                              Joseph Finegan
                              Martin Luther Smith
                              Franklin Gardner
                              William Nelson Rector Beall
                              Thomas Jordan
                              William Preston
                              Roger Atkinson Pryor
                              Henry Little
                              John Echols
                              George Earl Maney
                              Jean Jacques Alfred Alexandre Mouton
                              John Stuart Williams


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